Please note that this is a research document. Not every Beard mentioned here can be proven to be from our family line, but because of proximity, marriage, migration pattern or other records, they have been included as a possibility.

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From the earliest mentions to more modern happenings, we hope you find something of interest here. This outline is our research outline for the past decade and more, and is very detailed. It includes references to historical and also to local events, to give a flavor of the times. Note that there is much early research for Beards not proven to be of our particular line. These references are for the Beards who are found around the area of the North River of the Shenandoah River, about sixty five miles northeast of the Cowpasture River area of Beard settlement. Early 1700s Beard settlers in this Shenandoah area included a William, an Edward/Edwin, and a James Beard. It is a possibility that the James Beard who settled on Cowpasture River lands in the mid 1700s came from one of these Beard families. We will be most happy to consider any theory or answer any questions concerning any material included here. As always, we encourage every Beard/Baird male of any of these Valley families to have the DNA testing done by one of the genealogical testing companies. This testing may unlock doors for you and tell you information that the records could never reveal about kinship.

For anyone interested in the very early history of the family, we suggest readings about the Scots-Irish migrations to the New World that began after the siege of Londonderry in Northern Ireland. We note that our branches of Beards have DNA matched a family in the Lowlands of Scotland, the donor a descendant of a Baird family that are known to have lived in the Lanarkshire area since at least the 1600s. It is our theory that some members of the Scottish family migrated to the Northeast colonies in America in the early to mid 1600s, as shown by DNA matches with some New England seagoing Beards of the 1600s. Around the same time, or perhaps even earlier, others of the Scottish Beards probably went to Northern Ireland with the English encouragement of settlements there, and joined the busy colony that founded the Protestant sections of Ireland in Ulster. It was a very short boat trip across the channel from the areas of Lanarkshire and Ayr over to the northern parts of Ireland, about like a long ferry ride! Remember that these migrations were with large family groups, kindred family and friends, and sometimes whole church congregations migrated together. This habit was maintained in America, both before and after the Revolution. Our Beards were definitely not kilted, bagpipe blowing Scots from a Highland clan. Those Highlanders who migrated to America were usually Catholic supporters of the Catholic rulers of England. We were from the Lowland Covenanter contingents, who were the founders of Presbyterianism. They considered themselves not a part of the Catholics of Scotland and definitely not a part of England. The Beard/Baird name is very common in the lowlands of Scotland, in Ayr and Lanarkshire, south of Glasgow.

If you are researching our Beard line, keep in mind that many of the allied families are included in this outline. The children of Hugh, John, and Samuel Beard married into old Augusta County families: Milligans, Manns, Clendennons, Hursts, Doaks, and Coffeys are among the marriages. Some or all of these families lived in the same area as the Beards in Virginia, in Eastern Tennessee, in Kentucky and eventually in middle Tennessee, the last stopping place of many of the first and second generations known.

Trail House

The following outline begins with Northern Ireland, goes to Pennsylvania, then down the great valley to Virginia. There we first look at the earliest settlements in this part of Virginia, in present day Rockingham County, around the western edges of the great Massanutten range. Present day Rockingham County, formed in 1778 from Augusta County, is drained by three creeks which figure in this early history. They are Cub Run, Mill Creek, and Williams Run, which was then called Stoney Lick Branch. All three feed into the Shenandoah. From this area of settlement, we move just sixty or so miles southwest to the Cowpasture River area. We are certain that the Beard family on the Cowpasture lands were our ancestors, from later records. It is a good possibility that the James Beard who settled on land on the Cowpasture by 1743 had come over there from the Shenandoah area, but only further DNA matches will be able to tell us that conclusively. In the following outline, we will denote the "Shenandoah" area of settlement and the "Cowpasture" area of settlement. Our Beard ancestors left the beautiful valley of Virginia and pioneered parts of the Southwest Territory after the Revolution. This area of what would become Eastern Tennessee was just another trek "up the Valley" for these hardy pioneers. From here they eventually traveled over the mountain ridges up to Greene and Adair County in southern Kentucky, and from there became early settlers in Middle Tennessee.


  • Protestant Scots in the northern part of Ireland were involved in defending the city of Londonderry for 105 days in the Siege of Londonderry. This unrest was not the only problem for the Scots, as they chafed under the English imposition of heavy duties and regulations pertaining to their most profitable endeavor--growing flax and weaving it into fine linen for export. In addition, there was always the distrust that pertained to religion. The Scots never got along with the English and did not trust English rule, which became even more obvious during the American Revolution.


  • Many Scots from Northern Ireland were landing at ports in Philadelphia and Newcastle. Encouraged by William Penn and the Quakers to settle on the rough frontier west of Philadelphia, they did so in large numbers in the counties of Chester County and Lancaster County, created in 1729 from Chester County. The pacifist Quakers did not fight and having these hardy and battle hardened Scots as a buffer between them and the Indian tribes to the west was a good solution to their concerns about the safety of their families and homes.


  • In Virginia, a few citizens petition the governor that 50,000 acres of land "on the headbranches of the James River to the west and northwest of the Cowpasture" might be taken up and settled. Nothing of note happened in this remote section of Virginia, however, until the first surveys were made by Thomas and Andrew Lewis in 1745. These surveys were made for Adam Dickenson. Adam was the father of Colonel John Dickenson, who was the military commander of our Beards' military units before and during the Revolution, as well as a friend and neighbor on the Cowpasture River. The "Dickenson Settlement" around the Cowpasture was named for Adam Dickenson.


  • Governor William Gooch of Virginia granted 40,000 acres of choice western Virginia land to John and Isaac Van Meter of Pennsylvania, and they sold it to Joist Hite. Hite brought in a good number of German and Scots families from Pennsylvania, and they all started exploring lands to buy in the Valley. Their lands in Pennsylvania had quickly gone up in value, and it was easy to sell for a profit and move from the Cumberland Valley in Pennsylvania just a bit southwest to the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, really all a part of the same great Valley. The track that they used to travel became an established roadway after such use, and was called the Valley Road. Eventually it became known as the Great Wagon Road, and played a huge part in the settlement of our country. These German and Scots Irish families mostly settled around the base of the Massanutten Mountain area, and according to many of the early histories, many of the families
    Massanutten Skyline


    eventually moved further south to the Lands around the Jackson River and the "Pastures" area. Soon after the Hite grant, William Beverley was granted 118,491 acres in what was Orange County, Virginia and he established "The Manor of Beverley", a tract that extended into present day Augusta County. This area developed into one of the largest Scots Irish settlements in the New World. We think of these men as developers of large subdivisions just as in modern times. The land was unusually beautiful, with very symmetrical mountains with long, narrow but fertile valleys. The western boundary was the central ridge of the Appalachians, which divided the waters flowing east and west. The two main valleys were the Cowpasture River Valley and the Jackson River Valley. Some rivers that also figure in our history are the Calfpasture, the Bullpasture, the Shenandoah, the North River, and the James River, which has its origin in these mountains. With a cool average elevation of 2200 feet, the climate was delightful. The Valley became famous as a fertile garden spot with many natural wonders. The rich soils and the excellent mineral waters still make it famous. Several tribes of Indians traveled across this area, although none were actually living there. The tribes continually warred with each other, and the paths they used to travel to and from the attack crossed the lands that became the birthplace of many of our ancestors. It was too easy for them to attack at will, as the farms were spread up and down the Valley, relatively isolated by terrain and distance. They did use a system of "forting up" when attack was imminent, but many was the time when a family left too late, or when the man was out hunting and the women and children were left to fend for themselves in the night. There are five separate valleys within the larger one. They are identified as a) the Shenandoah Valley, which went from Harper's Ferry on the Potomac south to northern Rockbridge County b) the James River Valley, also called Fincastle Valley, which included the Cowpasture River, Jackson River, and the James River c) The Roanoke River Valley d) The New River Valley, which includes modern day counties of Montgomery, Pulaski, and Wythe Counties of West Virginia e) The Holston River Valley, today's Smyth and Washington Counties. The Valley as a whole rises to the southwest, and going "up" the Valley meant traveling to the southwest.


  • A John Beard is listed on the Blunston Licenses for a land grant in early Pennsylvania. Of great interest are some of the other names mentioned. They include James "Leper" (Leeper/Leaper), Robert Milliken, John Millikin (some of these families would later be Milligans or Millikans), John Reynolds, Evan Shelby, the famous pioneer and soldier, and three Hamiltons, George, James, and John. There were many other Beard families in early Pennsylvania at this time, including the names John, James, William, and Andrew. Listed in old Chester County at this time were James Arbuckle, Matthew Arbuckle (both of whom would be settlers in the same area of Cowpasture as our Beards), James Scott, and James Beard, all in the village of Fallow, and three records for a John Beard in New London, Aston. Of interest also is "John Millison" of Goshen, who might well be a John Milligan, etc. Note that in the 1740s in old Orange County, Virginia, the mother county for Frederick and Augusta, there are records for all of the above names, and they might all well be the same flock, moving en masse down to Virginia lands. A nearby town in Virginia was named Goshen, as well.

  • Throughout the 1730s, The Scotch Irish settlers of Lancaster and Chester Counties in Pennsylvania begin coming down the Wagon Road to the Valley of Virginia.

  • A petition in 1733 published in Vol I, Palmer's Calendar of Virginia State Papers, shows that the Massanutten settlers in the period between 1729 and 1733 had owned land in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania prior to their removal to Virginia.


  • James Woods' Survey Books, dated from 1734 through December of 1736 include Beard references which could possibly be our line. This area was in the North Branch of the Shenandoah River area, the first area to be settled by German and Scots Irish from Pennsylvania.

  • Benjamin Borden was granted 800 acres on the North Branch of the Shenandoah River, where the river runs between the mountains (west of Broadway, Virginia, in present day Rockingham County).
  • Meanwhile, back in Pennsylvania, in a 1734 assessment, the following: "Owing to the very great irregularity in shape of the surveys and the uncertainty in regard to the township lines, John Maes [sic] settled on Elk Creek in the southwest corner of the Manor, where his land, 208 acres, lies partly in Lower Oxford and partly in Penn." Remember that our Beard line lived next to the Mays/Mayse family on Cowpasture River in the Valley of Virginia just a few years later. The lands of the following are supposed to have been wholly or mostly in Upper Oxford, Pennsylvania, viz Job Ruston, David White, James McMullen, John Beard, James Glenn, Lawrence Keliah?, Alice Charlton, Andr Moore, Wm Pinkerton." The document is pertaining to Penn's Manor. A few years later, in 1741, "Settlers on Wm Penn's Manor" of Chester County, included was John Beard. This area embraces part of Oxford, Pennsylvania. In 1754, Chester County, a Hugh Beard was on a tax list for Oxford Township. Also, Chester County land warranties included John Beard on 2 Oct 1729 for 225 acres and John and Als (Alice?) Beard 100 acres on 30 April 1741.


  • A William Baird/Beard was granted 200 acres of land in Lancaster, Pennsylvania on January 10. He was in Augusta County, Virginia with many other Lancaster County families before January of 1746, according to the William and Mary Quarterly, conclusion of article of October 1925, "Early Settlers in the Valley of Virginia" by Charles E. Kemper.


  • Benjamin Borden of New Jersey was given a land patent for 92,100 acres, which included the southern part of modern day Augusta County and nearly all of present Rockbridge County. This seems to be a different, much larger grant than his 800 acres listed above, and it would become known as the Borden Grant, contiguous to the Beverley Manor settlements.

  • On 29 October: James Beard bought 369 acres on the north side of North River of the Shenandoah, adjacent Samuel Scott and Robert Scott. A notation for 30 October names Stoney Lick Branch on the property. On the same day, a record for David Craig, 400 acres on the north side of River Shenandoah adjacent Robert Scott above the ford, corner adjacent James Beard. (Robert Scott on 350 acres north side River Shenandoah adjacent Robert Craig) From Pioneers of Old Frederick County by Cecil O'Dell, pages 269-270.

    The Shenandoah River


  • On 30 July, Robert Scott patented 35 acres in Orange County (later Augusta), north side of north River of Shanando, bounded by James Beard and the south side of Stoney Lick Branch. One of the landmarks of the area was "James Beard's Ford" across the North River.
  • It is estimated in several old histories of the region that in 1742, there were perhaps no more than fifty settled families south of the James River and west of the Blue Ridge and no more than 25 along the north side of the James River in the Valley.


  • Augusta County was formed from Orange County, Virginia in 1745.
  • The first surveys for settlements were made in the Cowpasture River Valley and included the very desirable river bottom lands. There was excellent grazing, good grasses, rich soil, and famous mineral waters. The settlers would in future raise hay, wheat, oats, corn as well as raise sheep and cattle. John Lewis and James Patton partnered for a grant of 10,500 acres on and around the Calfpasture as well. In about 1745, there was a small settlement begun on and around the New River and the Woods River, near present day Blacksburg. James Patton was killed by Indians in this area ten years later. Adam Dickenson was perhaps the earliest settler of the Cowpasture River lands. His son John was Colonel John Dickenson, the military commander of our Beard men before and during the Revolution. The Dickensons were eventually neighbors of the Beards on the Cowpasture lands. From Oren Morton's History of Rockbridge County, Virginia: "There seems to be a common thread--that a number of people in the areas of the Calfpasture River, Jackson River, Cowpasture River, and Greenbrier River had been in the Siege of Londonderry and were from County Donegal."

  • In February, James Mayse was appointed a constable in Augusta County. He was on the lower Cowpasture River, and this date is the first found recognition of the settlement on this part of the Cowpasture. The Mayse family lived on land contiguous to our James Beard's Cowpasture land. According to the Mayse family, this James was a settler in Augusta County by 1744. They report that he and many of his neighbors came from Chester County, Pennsylvania to the Valley, and before that they were in the northern part of Ireland.

Cowpasture River scene

The Cowpasture River

  • On 18 March, a road was ordered to be built and although the record does not designate the area, the names on the list indicate that it was certainly in the Cowpasture area. They include: James Beard, John Mitchell, Adam Dickenson, Hugh Coffey, William Lamb, William Galespy/Gillespie, and James Scott.  THIS IS THE FIRST KNOWN CITATION FOR OUR JAMES BEARD, WHO LIVED ON COWPASTURE RIVER LANDS.  18 March 1743.
  • As the Cowpasture River area is so important to our study of our Beard ancestors,  here is a linkto an article about the area.

  • 24 May, in the Shenandoah area, the Orange County Court ordered a road built to the New River for a section from Colwell's Path across James Beard's Ford on the North River. This road was said to be the first official county public road in the area. In August, James Patton and John Buchanon, "having viewed the way from the Frederick County line through that part of this county called Augusta, made their report" and marked the road "to begin at Thom's (Thompson's?) Brook at the Frederick County line, thence to Benjamin Allen's Ford and Robert Caldwell's path, thence across Beard's Ford on the North River and Alex Thompson's Ford on the Middle River, thence to the Tinkling Spring, to the Beverley Manor line, to Gilbert Campbell's Ford on North branch of James River, thence to Cherry Tree Bottom on James River, thence to Adam Harmon's on the New or Wood's River." This road would connect many of the settlements north to south but did not extend southwest to the "Pastures" region.


  • The first road ordered by the newly formed Augusta County was ordered built from the great lick in Cowpasture adjacent land of Colonel Lewis to "Hamilton's home" in the Calfpasture.

  • In January in the Shenandoah area, Gabriel Jones and Lewis Neil of Frederick, executors of William McMahon, Gent, late of same, sold to William Beard 300 acres on Cub Run of the South River of Shanando (Shenandoah), west side Peaked Mountain (Massanutten), patented to William McMahon 12 January 1746...William McMahon had died intestate.

  • 19 February Shenandoah area, Alexander Thompson sold to William Beard, for fifteen pounds current Virginia money, on South Branch of Shanando, known by name of Cave Bottom, Alexander Thompson's Ford, next to the Great Mountain (Massanutten), Cave Hill, 100 acres, part of the tract patented to Alexander Thompson on 13 July 1742. Witnesses: James Beard, Alexander Thompson, John Edwards. There appear to be a relationship between William and James Beard.

  • February: Written on the fly leaf of the Court Order Book Number III is "Memorandum: that Saturday, the sixth of February 1747 was the coldest day yet known in America."

  • March Augusta Court ordered Thomas Stephenson overseer of the road "from Henry Downs' mill to ye meeting house".
  • 18 March 1746  O. S. page 168:  On the petition of sundry the inhabitants for a road from the Top of the Ridge to John Terralds and John Beards.  Ordered that John Bomgardner and Jacob Harmon after the County Road is cleared with the Petitions clear the same to wit: Robert Scot, Samuel Scot John Stevenson, Robert Hook, Wm Burk, Mathew Thompson, Charles Duel, Nicholas Noal, Jacob Harmon, John Lawrence, Jacob Pence, Henry Dickens, Valintine Pence, George Scot, John Viare, Jacob Harmon, Senr, Mathew Sharp, John Harmon, Robert Frazier, James Beard, Mathew Thompson, John Rolston, Stiffell Francisco, Wm Lamb, Samuel Lockard, and Robert Smith, and it is further ordered that they keep the same in repair. . .


  • Will of Jacob Julien written March 25, 1747, probated in August 1751, witnesses were Rene Julien, Isaac Bloomfield, and James Beard. Julien is buried at All Saints Church. This is Sheanandoah area.
  • Road ordered from top of the ridge to John Terrald's and James Beard's. This order is a goldmine for researchers, as it contains the names of many of the settlers of the area around the North River of the Shenandoah. Many times the families were in order of location on the road. Men ordered to work the road were: John Bomgardner/Bumgarner, Jacob Harmon, William Burk/Burke, Nicholas Noel/Nowell, Henry Dickins, John Viare/Viers, Veirs, John Harmon, James Beard, William Lamb/Lamme, Robert and Samuel Scot/Scott, Mathew Thompson, John L awrence, Valentine Pence, Jacob Harmon "Sr, Robert Frazier/Frazer, Frasier, Samuel Lockard/Lockhardt, John Stevenson/Stephenson, Robert Hook, Charles Duel, Jacob Pence, George Scot, Mathew Sharp, John Rohton, Stiffel Francisco, Robert Smith. (also see above reference to same in 1746.)
  • James Mayse sued John Lewis over the Mayse land purchase of 200 acres on the Cowpasture River. He also had 300 acres on the nearby Jackson River, but he lived on the Cowpasture land at this time.
  • Hugh Coffey settled on Cowpasture area before March 18, 1747, according to histories of the Coffey/Coffee family. He was listed on a road gang for a road from the lower end of Cowpasture River to Carter's Mill.
  • 19 May, William Beard acquired 100 acres "joining land he now lives on, between same and the river..." Shenandoah area.

  • 21 May James Beard appears on a list of newly appointed constables. Others include Robert Ramsey, John Ramsey, and Valentine Sevear/Sevier, the father of future Tennessee governor, John Sevier. This appears to be the Shenandoah area.

  • 21 May Hugh Coffie/Coffee/Coffey appointed an appraisor of the estate of John Watson. Probably Cowpasture area.

  • In a court session, Valentine "Sevear" was charged with swearing six oaths...
    220px-Cowpasture River VA canoes

    The Cowpasture River today

  • June, James Beard appears on the list of qualified and confirmed constables.

  • August Daniel Gawen, servant boy of Samuel Doak, adjudged to be twelve years old by the Court. Same term, Patrick Hay sells to Charles Mullican/Milican, land on each side of the James River, and on Looneys Mill Creek. John Graham is under arrest for abusing and threatening the life of Reverend John Hindman. (John Hindman was the first Presbyterian minister at the new Peaked Mountain (Massanutten) congregation. Perhaps John Graham was agitated because the Reverend switched his religious affiliation this year from Presbyterian to Church of England.

  • Note about the Peaked Mountain Church in the Shenandoah area: one of the earliest in the area, staunch Scots Presbyterian congregation. After the Revolution, it was called the Massanutten Church and the German Lutheran Church located nearby became known as the Peaked Mountain Church, so this is confusing for researchers. According to an old monograph called Foote's Sketches, the date of founding of this church is obscure. A man named Henry Downs was noted in 1746 as owning land and a mill on the North River near present Port Republic, "five miles south of Peaked Mountain Church", so this tells us that the church was established at that time. It was located a half mile west of Cross Keys, seven miles south of Harrisonburg, and two and a half miles from the base of the Peaked Mountain, the south end of the Massanutten range. In 1740, the Augusta Church (Presbyterian) was formed, but it was sixteen or more miles from these settlers, so a site for their own church was chosen by the settlers near Massanutten, in the middle of the Mill Creek Valley. The stone foundations of this Massanutten Church were still visible and could be seen in the early 1900s by various authors of sketches of the area. The ruins were said to be in the woods about seventy five feet from the present Massanutten Church. The foundations were about 35 feet long by 25 feet wide. The first pastor was said to be John Hindman of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, who came to the Valley in 1742. In 1743 he is recorded preaching sermons at Opecquon in present Frederick County. By 1745, he was preaching "at the Head of the Shenandoah", which would be at the present Port Republic by the junction of the North River and the South River...thus, the "head of Shenandoah" church was the Massanutten Church. John Hindman was an interesting character. In 1747 he changed his religious affiliation and became the first rector of the Augusta Parish Church, Episcopal. In order to do this, Hindman had to travel back to England and attend seminary. Shortly after he became the rector, he died at the home of John Stephenson on Mill Creek, after a five week illness. Stephenson was a great friend and benefactor of Hindman and was the administrator of Hindman's estate. That estate included various wigs, gowns, divinity books, and, well, 23 horses and a jockey's coat and cap! Reverend Hindman was a well known sportsman of the day. The Stephenson/Stevenson home was located on Mill Creek, eventually became known as "Meadow View", and boasted a race track said to be the oldest one in the state of Virginia, west of the Blue Ridge Mountains.

The deed, will, and survey books of Augusta County show that the following list of Presbyterian families lived within the bounds of the Peaked Mountain/Massanutten Church 1745-1773, and it is noted in several sources that nearly all are from Lancaster and Chester Counties in Pennsylvania. "Their homes and places of residence do not appear elsewhere and their early history is almost entirely forgotten in this neighborhood. Nearly all their descendants have gone from the lands of their forefathers to other sections and states and this information may prove of value to many." The wills of "nearly all" these heads of families are said to be recorded at Staunton, Virginia.
John and Sarah Craig Lower Cub Run, went to Lincoln Co, Ky about 1793
William and Mary Beard Cub Run near the base of the Peaked Mountain
William and Janet Craig "and son John"
Robert and Jean Hook, two and a half miles south of Cross Keys
Moonlight on shenandoah

Early Shenandoah River scene

John and Sarah Stephenson of Mill Creek, where crossed by present day Keezletown Road
Archibald and Mary Houston "and twelve children" near headwaters of Mill Creek
William Williams of Mill Creek near present Good's Mill
Mathew Thompson Sr of Stoney Lick Branch near North River
Mathew Thompson Jr Same
Robert Scott, North River near Port Republic
Samuel Scott
Patrick Frazier, Stoney Lick Branch
Robert Frazier Same
Thomas Hewitt, head of Stoney Lick Branch, one mile south of Cross Keys
James Wayt, near head of Mill Creek
James Laird "and sons James and David" head of Cub Run, base of Laird's Knob. Died 1803, will filed Harrisonburg, Virginia, said to have a brother named David whose
descendants lived in Fayette and adjacent counties in Kentucky.
Robert Shanklin of Stoney Lick Branch
After the Revolution, the Scots families moved away and Massanutten Church dwindled.
During this time of history, families and neighbors not only worked on the land and worshipped together, they fought together. Of interest is the list of Captain Scott's company during the French and Indian War (1754-1755) which includes among others: James Craig, James Laird, James Brewster, John Stephenson, Archibald Houston, Robert Hook, James Wait, John Wilson, William Baird/Beard, "and others".

1747, continued

  • September John Anderson and Valentine Sevier appointed inspectors of pork and beef

  • November Presented to grand jury, Joseph Milligan for adultery with Martha Milligan and Martha for adultery with Joseph Milligan

  • November Joseph Watson's appraisement by Hugh Coffey. David Steele's will, executors Samuel Doak, John Mitchell, Robert Ramsey

  • Patrick McDonald was fined for being drunk and for drinking the Pretender's health.


  • February William Beard patents land on the North River of Shanando, this patent is referred to in May of 1755, when the property was sold. 400 acres on Cub Run, North River Shanando, and west side of Peaked Mountain/Massanutten. Was this the same William Beard in previous records, adding land, or was it a different one?

  • February 17 Attachment against Jacob Costell, Phillip Cable, and John Lamme's estate charged that these three had announced that they were going to the French Dominions on the Mississippi and that such desertion would be harmful to the English in the War with France.

  • May Court certified that Presbyterian meeting houses have been built at Timber Ridge, New Providence, and Falling Spring

  • October 19 James Beard added to titheables--has this James just come of age? Age of titheable is sixteen.

  • December 13 Archibald Clendenning's will. He lives at Cowpasture. Wife Esther (Mayse/Mays), sons John and Archibald, Jr are named. The sons are very young. (this child John Clendenning would be the father of Jane, called Jenny, who married a James Beard of our line about 1800, lived in Adair County, Kentucky and died in Hardin County, Tennessee. Clendenning's other son, Archibald Jr, would grow up, marry and be killed by Indians in the Clendennon Massacre in 1763 in Augusta County. This is one of the families who were with our Beards through about a hundred years of history, in Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. The will names wife Esther, sons John and Archibald, Jr, to James Burnsides, the plantation in the new found land, to Rachel Burnsides, (sister of James Burnsides), under 18, to wife's children Margaret and John (youngest daughter here named Margaret Clendenning), executors Thos and William Galespy, witnesses Wm Doherty, Andrew Muldrow, Michael Reamey, proved 17 May 1749 by all witnesses and executors to be summoned.


  • February 28 William Thompson Jr to William Baskins, 232 acres, branch of Buffalo Run, corner James Beard. Buffalo Run, or Draft, is on the south side of the North River, Shenandoah area.

  • February Court orders six pounds of tobacco are to be collected from every person who has not delivered in his crows' heads or squirrels' scalps, according to law.

  • May: John Ramsey intends to leave the colony. There is a considerable list of others who also intend to leave, and the same day, the sheriff was told to arrest all those "who have behaved in a riotous manner". Three are brought before the Court the following day: William Shurley/Shirley, Thomas Fitzpatrick, and Valentine Sevier.

  • 17 May: Jacob Castle is arrested and charged with treason for threats to aid the French. He is acquitted on May 22.

  • 18 May: Petition to Augusta Court of the inhabitants of the North River and Peaked Mountain (present day vicinity of Elkton) for a road beginning at John Mann's smithshop on the south side of Peaked Mountain, thus eastward to John Wigard's, joining to the Court House Road, and that Jacob Rodgers, Robert Scot and James Beard be appointed to lay it out. Signers include: John Stephenson, John Craig, William Craig, Robert Hook, William Williams, David Chambers, Robert Scot, Mathew Thompson Sr, and Mathew Thompson Jr, William Milburn, George Scot ,Jacob Herman, Jacob Pence, Mathew Sharp, Feldy Pence, Jacob Maler, John Bomgardner, Jared Chambers, John Lynn, Jacob Man/Mann (eight of the list signed in German). The order was given directing Rodgers, Scott, and James Beard to view and mark the road. The present Keezletown Road was then the main road running north and south in the Valley. It led to the James River and James Beard's Ford. Note: This became the major road of settlement for all of the lands west of the Blue Ridge, not just Virginia but all of the South and the states west of Virginia. This cite is for the Shenandoah area.
  • 19 May 1749  O. S. [Old Style] page 127:  On the petition  sundry the inhabitants it is ordered that Jacob Rogers Robert Scot and James Beard survey and mark a way from John Mizers to the Stone Meeting House adjoining to the Court House Road and make report of their proceedings to the next Court.  Shenandoah area.

  • July: Samuel Scott's appraisement by William Lamb, James Beard, Mathew Thompson.

  • Samuel Hulls was brought to Court for a breach of the Sabbath "for singing prophane songs".
  • 26 August O. S. page 278:  James Beard is hereby appointed Surveyor of the Highway from the New Meeting House to Robert Scot's  and with the Adjacent Titheables  it is ordered that he Clear and keep the same in repair according to Law.  Shenandoah area.

  • October: James McNutt's appraisement, notes from James Davis, Arthur Miliken

  • November: William Graham's appraisement, Samuel Doak/Doake is security
280px-Massanutten Mountain-Page Valley

Looking east to Massanutten Mountain, with the great North Mountain in the distance.


  • Archibald Clendenning's appraisement by Hugh Coffey and others. This is Archibald Sr, of the Cowpasture

  • William Inglis/Englis reports that county funds collected by him were consumed in his house by fire

  • September: John Greer's will, executors John Mitchell, Samuel Doak

  • James Greenlea, being unable to read or write, is released from serving as constable.

  • August 28: William Beard is appointed in the room of James Galespy/Gillespie to oversee a part of the Indian Road whereof William Thompson was overseer. Shenandoah area.

  • August: Appraisement of Samuel Brown on Round Oak by Ephraim Vause , et al, appraisement of Brown's land on Cowpasture by Hugh Coffey.

  • November: Jacob Patton sells land to Joseph Milikan
  • November:  County levy is paid for numerous wolf heads. Francis Hughes is paid for "one old wolf head".
  • 27 November:  O. S. page 485  On the petition of sundry inhabitants of the Cow Pasture for a road from Patrick Davis's to the road that leads from Col John Lewis' land to Beverley's Big Meadows it is ordered that James Mays, Adam Dickenson and David Davis lay off the same and mae report of their proceedings to the next Court.  There is also a citation for 27 February 1750 where these gentlemen are charged to build the road, but this has to be a cite for 27 February 1751 in order to make sense.  See that date below for full site.

  • Jacob Coger presented to Court for driving hogs over the Blue Ridge on Sabbath.

  • Estate sale of Mathias Shaw, on list of purchasers is James Beard, Charles Mann. Probably Shenandoah area.


  • 27 February 1751  James Mays and John Dickenson appoointed Surveyors of the High Way from Patrick Davis' to the road that leads to Beverley's big Meadow, and it is ordered that Adam Dickenson Gentleman lay off their respective gangs and preceincts and set up posts of directions and keep the same in repair.

  • March 2 Commissioners appointed to inspect the beer sold at every Court session and "if it appear that same is not at least one month old, well hop'd (hopped), then they presume not to ask more than one penny a quart for it".

  • James Frame presented to Court for breaking Sabbath by unneccessarily traveling more than ten miles.

  • William Hurst is on a list for a road. This Hurst family will marry into our Beard family fifty years later in Adair County, Kentucky, wedding Elizabeth Betsey Beard, the daughter of Hugh Beard.

  • May 28: Robert Scot is hereby appointed surveyor of the highway in the room of James Beard. Probably Shenandoah area, where the Beards and Scots/Scotts were neighbors.
  • May 28: Robert McMahon is appointed Surveyor of the Highway in the room of Wm Beard and it is ordered that he set up posts of directions and with the Tithables that usually worked on the road under the said Beard he Clear and keep the Same in repair according to law.

  • May 30 James Mays/Mayse intends to leave the Colony for Carolina with several horses. The Court certifies that he is a freeholder and has behaved honestly.

  • May Valentine Sevier has books "detained" of another.

  • June In the case of Shields vs Wilson and Gilmore: the verdict is stayed because of jurors Walter Davis and Malcolm Campbell. One ran out of the Courthouse, the other jumped out of the Courthouse window; they separated themselves from other jurors and talked with other persons.

  • August Francis Hughes complains that the sheriff, Robert McClenachan, has taken him up as a runaway servant and seized his horse. Court ordered Francis to be released, but he has to pay the sheriff ten shillings for keeping and feeding the horse.

  • August (or April?) 15: Marriage license issued for Edward Beard. No bride's name listed, but we know he married Mary Bell. Lived near Shenandoah area at this time.

  • November A lawsuit is filed, Beard, a mason, vs Christall. There are several later cites that give Edward Beard as a stonemason.

  • James Leeper sells to Nicholas Leeper. Margaret is the wife of James.
2shenandoah valley

Valley of Virginia

  • A ducking stool is ordered to be built. County pays levy for 225 wolf heads

  • Presentments to the grand jury: Elisha Job for swearing more than four oaths; Owen Crawford for drinking the health of King James and refusing to drink to King George; James Shaw, three oaths; Robert Armstrong, a "common swearer".

  • November: Adam Dickinson, David Davis, Peter Wright and Joseph Carpenter to lay off a road from Wright's Mill to the Cowpasture near Hugart's or Knox's.


  • 16 June Robert Frazer sold 228 acres to James Beard. Borders Collin's Branch and Beard's own land. Shenandoah area, see 1771...
  • 20 May  John Beard and Jacob Gum appointed Surveyors of the highway in the room of Francis Hughs, and it is ordered....they Clear and keep the same in repair according to Law.
  • Windy Cove Presbyterian Church was founded this year on the Cowpasture River, a few miles north of the location of our Beard lands on this river.

  • Certificates for wolf heads: 50,600 lbs of tobacco are paid out.

 * June John Graham's bond as appointed guardian to Thomas Mann, orphan of John Mann, surety Adam Dickenson.

  • A petition is presented to encourage the making of linen cloth and it is certified to the general assembly. Many of these families were weavers by trade in northern Ireland, and some grow flax in the Valley.

  • August: John Mitchell and Samuel Doage/Doak, bond as appointed guardians of Rebecca Alexander, Martha and Mary Greer, orphans of John Greer, deceased.

  • November: In a fight, Samuel Newgally bit off part of John Bingamon's ears.

  • Catherine Quin, having come from amongst the small pox, so it is feared that she may spread the infection. Ordered, that the sheriff convey her out of town and that in case she presume to return she be imprisoned at the sitting of the Court.


  • James Mitchell complains that his master, Valentine Sevier, abuses him. Several such complaints were made by Sevier's apprentices and servants.

  • March: James Beard was listed as surety in the will of Mathew Thompson. Probably Shenandoah area.

  • May: Edward Beard vs John Flood, a lawsuit called "Square and compass vs Pill and bolus" in the records. Beard is a mason, Flood a doctor.

  • May 22: Samuel Lockhart and wife Catherine to Edward Beard, Mason, 200 acres on North River of Shanando, part of 400 acres patented to Lockhart in April of 1751, corner Samuel Lusk, corner to James Beard. (So Edward Beard and James Beard now own lands next to each other on the North River of the Shenandoah.)

  • July 14: William and Mary Beard to Robert Frazer, South Branch of Shanando known as Cave Bottom, part of large tract patented to Alexander Thompson on 13 July 1741 and sold to Beard by Thompson (see above, 19 February 1742) Includes Alexander Thompson's Ford, Cave Hill, 100 acres. Test: Robert Hook, Robert Ralstone, and James Beard.

  • August 10: Margaret Love, alias Bryan, to James Mitchell. Mortgage or personalty to indemnify Mitchell against a judgment against him in Augusta County Court. William Beard is listed as a witness.


  • May: Anne Brown, wife of James Brown, came into the Court and called Justice William Wilson (William Williams?) "a rogue" and said that "on his coming off the Bench she would give it to him with the Devil". She was bound to good behavior. In a later session, Christan Wilson, wife of William Wilson, informs the Court that her husband has left the Colony and left three small children, two of whom she cannot support. Daniel and Elizabeth Wilson are to be bound out.

  • Samuel Doak and John Mitchell, guardians of the orphans of John Greer, settled the accounts.


  • Great unrest in the Valley. Indian attacks become more and more frequent due to the war with the French, known to history as The French and Indian War. George Washington did a tour of the forts inthe Valley at this time and appparently visited many of them, writing a report describing conditions at each. Many of the settlers left the area of the Cowpasture area at this time and moved to the east side of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and the ones who did stay "forted up" frequently. There were many attacks, random killings, and kidnappings during the period. Our ancestor Samuel Beard was an infant, born this year. See 1763, when the attacks diminished somewhat and settlers returned to their farms and homes.

  • In March, Thomas Reed comes into Court and says that on Friday the 21st, John Risk assaulted him and bit off part of his left ear. This sort of thing happened frequently, and it was necessary to make a Court record of the disfigurement, as convicts and felons were marked this way and they did not want to be taken for a criminal.

  • 22 May  Henry Reaburn is appointed surveyor of the highway from James Beard's Ford to Chamberlain's Run, thence to the Stone Meeting House. Shenandoah area

  • July/August The new Augusta County Courthouse is being finished. Commissioners are appointed to view it. On August 21, 1755, "the new Courthouse was received".
Ash Lawn - Highland (Sepia)

A farm in the Valley

  • "James Beard came over from the Grottoes section in 1755 and acquired holdings near Penn Laird, probably the old Earman farm". This is a passage in the Virginia Valley records of Rockingham County by John Walter Wayland. George Earman acquired this land in the 1805-1810 time frame. Today this property is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There were already Beards in the area by 1755, at least one James Beard. This is the Shenandoah area.

  • July: A major battle was fought at the confluence of the Monongahela River and the Allegheny River, which come together to form the Ohio River near Pittsburg. The British and Colonial troops were surprised and defeated by the Indians and French. This battle came to be known as "Braddock's Defeat" and was a contributing factor to the beginning of the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War. Whoever controlled this place, the site of Fort Duquesne near modern day Pittsburg, controlled the entire Ohio River and its watershed. The fate of the colonists in western Virginia was greatly affected by the outcome. The defeat unleashed waves of Indian attacks on the settlers in the Valley area of Virginia and there were many raids, killings, and abductions of entire families. The defense of their homes was left mostly to the settlers themselves. Our ancestors in the Valley mobilised and fought back. A list of men in active service with Captain Scott's Company during the French and Indian War included the following, along with a few facts about those on the list, some found in the Virginia Magazine of history and Biography, Volume 30: see it here.

Robert Scott, commander of the militia who lived within the bounds of the old Peaked Mountain congregation, now called Massanutten, near Cross Keys in Rockingham County. "The fact that Captain Robert Scott saw active service in the French and Indian War appears in the 13th American Bulletin of the Virginia State Library" . Captain Scott lived on the North River in the vicinity of present day Port Republic.

Robert Hook, captain who succeeded Scott in 1759. Hook lived about two and a half miles southwest of present day Cross Keys, Rockbridge County.

James Craig was born in Ulster or Antrim, Ireland about 1715 and came to America with his parents in 1721-22, settling first in Lancaster or Chester County, Pennsylvania. They came to the Valley of Virginia about 1744 and settled on Cub Run, present day Rockingham County, about a mile from the Shenandoah River. He married Mary Laird, the daughter of James Laird, probably the same James as on this list.

James Brewster was a member of the old Peaked Mountain Presbyterian Congregation of present day Rockingham County. He resided on Keezletown Road, two miles northeast of the church. There are several interesting websites created by his descendants with accounts of his three daughters and their efforts for the Revolutionary forces, such as this example: Keezletown Road led to the crossing called James Beard's Ford,and James Beard lived on this property. The older name for Keezletown Road was the "Old Indian Road". About three and a half miles southwest of Cross Keys the road turns to the left and the present road leading to Beard's Ford was followed, the road crossed the North River at Beard's Ford, then went to the southwest of New Hope, Virginia. We note that the above Edward Beard family eventually made a home at New Hope.

1755, continued

  • John Quarles vs William Dougherty and James Beard. Summons issued 28 May 1755 and returned to the Court "not executed by reason of disturbances of the Indians". File 397, Augusta County Records. William Dougherty lived on or near the James River, near James Beard. According to the William and Mary Quarterly, William Dougherty and James Beard both lived on the James in present day Rockbridge County. A part of Botetourt County eventually became a part of Rockbridge. We believe that this James Beard lived on the Cowpasture near the James River, not on the James, from many other records.

  • April 15: William Miller's appraisement, three bonds on Richard Reed, Edward McDonald, and William Beard. Shenandoah area.

  • May: A Margaret Campbell of the Cowpasture area makes an oath that the ear of her son, James Beard, was bitten off by a horse. Since a notched ear was a sign of a punishment, when a disfigured ear was caused by some other reason, a court record was made to establish the truth and avoid a future mistake. Was this Margaret Campbell married to a Beard first, then a Campbell? Note that a James Beard lived along the Cowpasture at the same time. Had she been married to one of his sons, who was dead at this date?  Here is the quote from the Annals of Bath County by Oren F. Morton, on page 188-189, in the chapter called The Families of Greater Bath [County]:  "In 1755 the mother of James Beard made oath that her boy's ear had been bitten off by a horse. The human ear in those days could sometimes get the owner into trouble.  It was sometimes chewed off by animals, whether wild or domestic and also by the human animal in the brutal fights of the time.  and as slicing off the lobe of the ear was then a mode of punishment, it was not desirable to be under suspicion as a convict.  This James Beard was probably a son of an older James.  It was doubtless the one or the other who purchased the Crockett place on the Cowpasture in 1776.  A James Beard had removed to Tennessee by 1794."  [Note:  the sale of land on the Cowpasture by Crocketts to James Beard occured on 10 August 1761, not 1776. See entry of 10 August 1761 on this TimeLine. ] 

  • May 20: William Beard and wife Mary sell to Robert Bellsher for 30 pounds, 220 acres on the Island Draft of the North River of the Shanando, acquired by patent of 10 February 1748. Witnesses were Samuel Lockhart, James Beard and Edward Beard. Note: here we have all three Beards of this Shenandoah area on one document together. Are James and Edward the sons of William Beard? Or, could they all be brothers? They all live very close to each other on these lands.

  • May 21: Road ordered from James Beard's Ford to Chamberlain's Run, to the Stone Meeting House. Shenandoah area.

  • August 20: Samuel Lockhart and Catherine to Edward Beard for 50 pounds, 500 acres on North River of the Shanandoe, part of 400 acres granted by patent to Samuel on 10 April 1751, corner said Edward Beard's land.

  • November 19: Edward hall's bond as guardian to Daniel Plummer, orphan of Robert Plummer, sureties John Ramsey, William Beard. Shenandoah area.


  • Fort Dickenson on the Cowpasture River was attacked by Indians in this year and the next year, several miles from present day Millboro Springs. Fort Dickenson was about fifteen miles below Fort Lewis, also on the Cowpasture, but historians do not know the exact site today. Here is a link  to a [http:// map and present day scene] .  The remains of Fort Lewis could still be seen about 1900. These two stockade forts were garrisoned by a few dozen militia at a time, and provided protection during Indian raids, when settlers would "fort up" for safety. These two were the closest forts to our Beard ancestors on the Cowpasture River.

  • March: Lewis vs Beard: lawsuit over a building contract for a chimney. This is probably Edward Beard, the stonemason, and if so, Shenandoah area.

  • August: John Mann's bond with Adam and John Dickenson as administrators of Moses Mann. This is the ancestor of the Moses Mann, father of Demia Mann who in Kentucky in 1814 married Josiah Beard, a son of Samuel Beard.

  • Council of War held at Augusta Court House. Attendees listed: Colonel John Buchanan, David Stewart, Major John Brown, and nine captains which included William Christian, Robert Breckenridge, James Lockart/Lockhart, Patrick Martin, and Israel Christian.

  • April 29: a James Beard made a claim for ranging (patrolling) Also on list was Henry Raeburn/Reaburn/Rayburn. His descendant would marry one of our Beard descendants in the 1840s.

  • May: Catherine Quin to be released on condition she depart this county.

  • 19 May: Robert Moore, overseer for James Beard. . . there is a lawsuit of Beard vs Moore at this time period, we must attempt to find records.

  • 29 May: a Jean Beard is listed as a witness, sale of part of 400 acres, delivered to Sampson Archer November 1759, bounded by Thos Gardner on west and Alexander Gibson on east.

  • Processioning: Edward Beard and William Beard are on the list of landholders, Shenandoah area, but no James is listed here.

  • A lawsuit filed this year, James Simpson vs Mary Campbell, named some of the residents of the lower Cowpasture River area, and a James Beard is on the list.

  • Fee books for services: a James Beard mentioned in Cowpasture.

  • September: James McClure's will: a taylor, of South Carolina, "to son James my Bible and the big pot. To son Samuel, the next biggest pot. To wife Agness, the use of both pots." Witness: William Beard. Filed in Augusta County.

  • November: John Cunningham is to provide candles, keep the fires, and clean the Courthouse. Robert McClenachan refused to deliver up the keys to the courthouse, claiming a property right in it and the jail, to which he offered to execute a lease to the county, which is referred to the General Court and the sheriff is ordered to procure a lock and key. Gabriel Jones is to prosecute Robert McClenachan in General Court.

  • John Smith is noted in the court minutes as being "a prisoner in the French Dominions". He was a military leader of this area and a neighbor and he was captured by Indians and taken away into French territory.

  • William McMurry petitions that John Madison with a company of men entered his house on their march to the Shawnees and took some of his rye. Claim rejected.


  • Feb 1757:  The Stewart/Stuart family lived on Cowpasture Valley lands, on a branch called Stuart's Creek.  In this month, James Stuart was captured by Pawnee Indians, along with his son James, Jr.  The father was burned at the stake by the Indians, witnessed by his son, who later escaped to tell the tale.  This incident was known as "Dinwiddie's Massacre". 

  • July William Bell's will: To be buried at the Stone Meeting House beside wife lately deceased. To son Joseph, plantation if he dies before he comes home from Carolina, then to daughter Mary, gold ring he did usually wear, named sons William, David, Samuel Bell, and Edward Baird. (Edward Beard/Baird married Mary Bell and was William Bell's son in law.) This is the Edward Beard who was a stonemason, Shenandoah area.

  • 27 September: Sale, David Dunlap to Hugh Beard. Land adjoins John Cunningham and William Lockridge. William Beard listed as a witness. Are these Beards both the sons of Thomas Beard of Borden's Grant? The land is described as 170 acres in Borden's Tract, and this is where Thomas Beard lived so this cite is probably for this Thomas. He did have a son named Hugh. No connection is known between this Beard family of the Borden tract and our family of the Cowpasture area.


  • March: The Court noted that John Smith has returned from his captivity in the French Dominions.

  • Robert McClanachan agrees to release to the Court his right in the lands on which the courthouse is built.

  • April: Called Court on Hugh McNamara, charged with being, aiding and assisting the Shawnee Indians in alliance with the French Nation and endeavoring to mislead the Cherokee Indians, His Majesty's friends and allies. He is to be tried at Court of Oyer and Terminer in June next, to be carried to Williamsburg.

  • Claim of John Brown for guarding provisions to Dickenson's Fort when attacked by the enemy Indians and for provisions in their march.

  • John Bowyer disturbed the Court while sitting by playing at "fives". Fined five shillings.

  • Robert McClanachan refuses to pay over certain moneys due the County; ordered that he be prosecuted in Court.


  • 8 February: Vendue of John Vingard? Wingard? On list of buyers are William Beard, Charles Mann, Jacob Mann

  • 16 May: James Beard appointed overseer of a road from John Stevenson's to Andrew Leeper's. See March, 1760. Probably Shenandoah area.

  • 17 May: James Beard was paid from the estate settlement of Samuel Scott. See 1768, Samuel Scott was a neighbor of William Beard in the Shenandoah area.

  • 19 November: Edward Beard and Mary to Thomas Lorimer, 30 pounds, 139 acres, part of 179 acre patent to ? 30 August 1748 on North River of the Shanandore.

  • During both the May and November terms of Court, Edward Beard was one of the witnesses in the case of Steele v. Jones

  • Archibald and John Clendennin patented 340 acres on the Cowpasture River. James Mayse and William Doherty/Dougherty lived on adjacent acreages and James Beard lived very close by.
An old pioneer once lived here.
  • December: John Colley's (?) will, witness signed William Beard


  • 14 March: William Craig's appraisement by Samuel Henderson, who was his son in law, and James Beard and Andrew Leeper, with John and James Craig, debtors. Shenandoah area.

  • 20 May: "Dillon, attacked by Stevenson, Beard, Gilbert, and Harrison, has run away. . ." FIND Shenandoah area.

  • June: John Colley? Galley? Estate appraisement by Archibald Huston, William Beard, Jacob Parsinger. He son is listed as Christian, on 11 December this year, the same three would appraise the estate of Christian "Gally".

  • Edward Beard and Mary to James Beard: 30 pounds, 36 acres on North River of Shanando, part of 400 acre tract patented to Samuel Lockhart in April 1751. Also 20 acres, part of 179 acres patented to Samuel Lockhart on 30 August 1748, adjacent the above land.

  • Robert Crockett acquired land along the James River, sold in 1762 to James Fitzpatrick.


  • 14 February: James Beard witness on the sale of 295 acres on Calfpasture River, John Dunlap to Robert Dunlap, part of 625 acres on Mill Creek, this is the Cowpasture area. pg 126, Chalkley

  • 19 May: Robert Belshire appointed surveyor in the room of James Beard.

  • 19 May: James Beard was cited as a neighbor when 380 acres on Buffalo Draft were sold, on the south side of the North River, "corner to James Beard", bought by Robert Reaburn from Robert McMahon. Land was originally patented to Robert Smith on 16 August 1756. Shenandoah area.

  • John Graham fined for calling Israel Christian a rogue, a cheat, and a rascal. Chalkley

  • Examination of Edward McGarry on suspicion of felony. He begged the Court to consider his unhappy circumstances and prayed that he receive his punishment immediately without further trial. He was given his choice of standing in the pillory for one quarter hour or to be removed to Williamsburg for trial. He chose the pillory.

  • June: Called Court for examination of Robert McGarry on suspicion of his breaking into the jail and setting at large Edward McGarry and other prisoners. Acquitted.

  • 10 August: John Crockett and Margaret and Archibald Crockett and Mary of Anson County, North Carolina to James Beard, for 120 pounds, 246 acres on the Cowpasture River, corner to James Mease (Mayse/Mays), teste was Samuel Crockett. Delivered to Mrs Beard June, 1784. Page 5, Chalkley Vol III. Many of the settlers of Augusta moved down to Anson and Rowan Counties in North Carolina. We believe this James Beard is the father of Hugh, John, and Samuel Beard of Adair County, Kentucky. He was adding land, as he had been in this area since 1743.            

    Click map to enlarge. Note the area of Warm Springs and Dickinson's Fort. This is where our Beards were located on Cowpasture River.

  • 18 August: James McClure's will proved, William Beard and William McClure, the witnesses to the will are deceased. So this William Beard died between the filing of the will in September of 1756 and this record of August 1761.

  • 24 August  Archibald Huston is hereby appointed Surveyor of the Highway from John Stevenson to James Beard and it is ordered that with the ...persons within two miles thereof he clear and keep the same in repair according to Law.

  • 17 November: Commission appointed for privy examination of Mary, the wife of Edward Beard. Chalkley, Vol I

  • 19 November: Commission appointed for privy examination of Jane, the wife of James Beard. Chalkley, Vol I

  • 19 November: James Beard sold to John Davidson Sr and Jr for 14.5 pounds, 228 acres on Collins Branch, corner to Beard's own land, by patent dated 5 April 1748 "delivered to John Davison Sr August 1765" Chalkley Vol III, page 84 This is the Shenandoah area.

  • 19 November: In same Court, Thomas Gilmore vs George Wilson: "During the late War, the Indians came to the plantation where the plaintiff lived, and after killing his father and mother, robbed them and plaintiff of almost all they had and amongst other things, the horse in dispute. Defendant and several others pursued the Indians several days and retook a great part of the things belonging to the plaintiff. The inhabitants of Carr's Creek [or Kerr's Creek], plaintiff is not one of them, offered to any persons that would go after the Indians and redeem the prisoners, they should have all plunder belonging to them. . ."

  • 21 November: Marriage license issued for William Ward. There are many connections to Wards in later generations, possibly some of them connect to the Augusta County area?

  • 25 November Robert Reburn and wife Jean sold land to Hugh Donally, 380 acres on Buffalo Draft, south side of North River, corner to James Beard. (see entry for 19 May above) Note that in 1749 land on a branch of Buffalo Draft was said to corner on James Beard, so this James Beard was on that land all during this period. Chalkley, Vol III, page 188 Shenandoah area.


  • February: Julian (Julia?) McMahon convicted of stealing some thread lace from Sarah Stewart, value ten pence, given 39 lashes.

  • 9 Feb: John Davies/Davis and wife Judith to George Berry, teste W(illiam?) Ward, Joseph Ward

  • February: Sampson Mathews declared that he saw Joseph Love bite off the left ear of John Noland.

  • Joseph Carpenter on the James River below Wright sold to John Mann. Carpenter's sons Solomon and Joseph inherited the balance. Solomon later sold his share, also to John Mann. These Carpenters and Manns would have many dealings with our Beard families.

  • May: Patrick Hara/Hannah?, Thomas Brannon, and Joseph Hays, soldiers, march into Court with their hats on and insult the Court. Committed to jail. Four days later, Alexander McClanachan, Thomas Crow, Jospeh Bell, and George Francisco disturbed the Court by playing at ball, and are fined.

  • August: Elizabeth Smith convicted of stealing, 39 lashes.

  • 17 August: William Sprowle/Sproule and Jean to Alexander McElroy, 320 acres on Moffatt's Creek, teste: W. Ward, Jas Ward.

  • August: Sproul v. Bratton: Dunlap was indebted to a list of persons which included James Milliken.

  • In the case of Thos Fulton and Robert Buckley: Sheriff has attached 31 wigs, 6 razors, and some chairs.

  • John Henderson complains to the Court of his father George, setting forth that he uses him ill. George is summoned to Court.

  • Israel Christian complains that John Bowyer, Genetleman, interrupted and ill used him in his efforts to suppress gaming. Bound over to grand jury.
James River from the Blue Ridge Parkway

The James River from the Blue Ridge Parkway.

  • 23 August: James Milligan, returned no inhabitant.

  • Archibald Clendenning is appointed Constable on the waters of Greenbriar.

  • November: County levy, three wolf head awards.

  • Margaret Woods vs Thomas Loyd: Sheriff attached the following: one bottle of rhubarb, one paper of rhubarb, 14 boxes Lockyer's pills, 3 bottles of Duffy's Elixir, some spirits of Hartshorn, 2 papers senna, 1 paper black brimstone, and a pot and vial.

  • John Bowyer, Gentleman, fined by Justices for gaming in a public house, appealed to the Court when he appeared and confessed. Judgment for fine and costs.


  • French and Indian War, or Seven Years War, is mostly over and the inhabitants who had moved east began to return to the frontiers. "By March William Beard was there." This could not be the same William Beard who was noted as deceased in November 1761 when James McClure's will was proven.

  • James Beard is on a list on the northwest side of the lower Cowpasture, 1763 patents. This is the area of Augusta that became Botetourt County in 1769. amd the northernmost part then became Bath County in 1790.

  • James Reaburn complains that Wm McMullen does not provide clothes nor teach a trade to his apprentice, Henry Reaburn. Suit later dismissed as frivolous. Shortly after, Henry Reaburn, age 16, orphan of Edward Reaburn, chose James Reaburn as his guardian.

  • June: William Beard, bond with Archibald Huston as administrators of John Sheldon.

  • 21 June: Margaret Leeper, qualified administrator of her deceased husband James Leeper's will. William Beard, as greatest creditor, qualified administrator of John Sheldon. See 1764.

  • 25 June: Robert Graham vs Thos Mann, abates death of the plaintiff Graham.

  • 15 July: The Clendennon Massacre occurs. Friends and neighbors of Archibald Clendennon/Clendenning were gathered for a post hunt feast at the Clendennon home. According to family accounts, an elk hunt had been successful and the family were sharing the bounty. In the home itself, an elderly woman was talking to an Indian who was regarded as a friend, when he suddenly tomahawked and killed her, then killed all in the house who did not run away in time. Other Indians, according to their prior plan, then attacked the settlers outside. Archibald was killed and scalped and his wife Ann was taken prisoner, along with two of the children.
    Recall that James Beard married Jane/Jean/Jennie Clendennon, the daughter of John, who was the brother of the slain Archibald. Both of them were sons of Archibald Clendennon Sr and his wife Esther Mayse. From Annals of Bath County by Oren F. Morton, page 192, section entitled Families of Greater Bath:  "Archibald Clendennin lived on the John Walker survey and was buried there in 1749.  He left half the farm to his son John, then about five years old, who later went to East Tennessee. [and was the father of Mrs. James Beard referred to above.]  The boy had a sister, Margaret, and James Burnside was a half brother.  Archibald, Junior, a son by the first wife, moved to Greenbrier [Virginia, now part of West Virginia] and was murdered by Indians in 1763.  His wife was a Ewing.  Five of his six children were also killed, but the wife escaped to the Cowpasture [Cowpasture River, where his father lived and neighbors were our Beards].  George and Charles seem to have been other sons.  The latter gave his name to the capital of West Virginia. [Charleston]

  • 21 August: William Beard and Mary to James Bellshire, 268 1/2 acres, island draft of the North River of the Shenando, teste Joseph Bell, John Ralstone.

  • August: The widow, Ann Clendenning was qualified administrator of her husband Archibald, murdered by the Indians in July.

  • 20 September: Called Court for examination of Hugh Beard, charged with feloniously biting the ear of William Farris, judged not guilty. In same session, Joseph Garrott, suspicion of a felony, found not guilty of stealing, but found guilty of receiving stolen goods and given 35 lashes.

  • Lancelot Graham and John Clark misbehaved in the Courtyard by acting in a riotous manner. Bound to good behavior.

  • Sheriff is ordered to purchase a pair of iron dogs for the Courthouse chimney and hire someone to repair the hearth.

  • November: the trial of Tom, a slave, for the murder of John Harrison Jr by shooting him in the back. He confessed and was found guilty. Sentenced to hanging by the neck on Saturday the 19th and his head be severed and affixed on a pole on top of a hill that leads from this Courthouse to Edward Tarr's.

  • November: James Huston, appointed inspector of flour.
Autumn in Rockbridge County

Present day Rockbridge County, Virginia pastureland

  • November: Paid to John Bowyer for execution of the Negro Tom.

  • November: the trial of Fanner, the Negro slave of John Harrison, for aiding and abetting Tom in the murder f John Harrison Jr. Fanner was acquited.


  • March: William Stamps vs William Beard, writ 28 April 1763. Defendant lives on Roanoke or the New River.

  • April: Archibald Clendenning Jr's estate appraisement includes one tomahawk, one pipe, a pistole, and a cow wounded with an arrow, grim reminders of the Indian attack on his home.

  • June: The King vs George Lewis for driving his wagon on the Sabbath.

  • June: Called Court on Priscilla Ladd for larceny. Prisoner craves corporal punishment, given 39 lashes.

  • 21 August: William Beard, 219.5 acres Island Draft, North Shanando, by patent 10 February 1748. CITE

  • 27 August: Will of Abraham Bess/Biss: Witnesses Jos Cloyd, William Beard, John Bradley. Witnesses John Smith, David Mitchell

  • 20 November: John Sheldon's appraisement by Joseph English, George Carpenter, James "Leard" (probably Laird), and settlement of the estate was recorded. William Beard, administrator. The Lairds were from Ulster in Ireland, like most of their neighbors, and they had settled first in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, again like most of their Scots Irish neighbors in the Valley. They lived at the base of Laird's Knob in the Shenandoah area. Three Lairds married three Craigs, children of William Craig. Two Laird children would eventually marry Beards, children of Edward and Mary Bell Beard, and eventually settle in Lincoln County, Kentucky. Captain David Laird was the son of James Laird. He married Ann Scott Lamme/Lamb and bought land in 1768 from Edward Beard on North River, fifteen miles northeast of Staunton. In 1770 he bought land from James and Jean Beard on the north side of the Shenandoah, which the Beards had bought from Samuel Lockhart.

  • The county paid levies for three wolf heads.

  • November: In a land sale Hugh Botkins to Handry Picket, "comprehending the place John Kare (Karr/Kerr?) sold to Richd Botkin, joining Robert Reburn and John Strain on east, Robert McMahan and John Botkin on west, John Richey and James Orrey and Edward Beard on north."

  • Damis, wife of John Mann, relinquishment of dower rights. This is the Mann family into which Josiah Beard, son of Samuel Beard, would marry in 1814 in Kentucky.

  • Joseph Carpenter, guardian of Joseph, James and Jacob Scott, the orphans of John Scott, called to account. This is the Carpenter family that was close to our Beards. In February of 1786 in Greene County, Tennessee, Hugh Beard would stand bond at the wedding of Mary O'Neal to John Carpenter. This Carpenter family would then move up to Green and Adair Counties in Kentucky at the same time our Beards moved.

  • 23 November: Alexander McAllister and Hugh Millikan, being some time ago committed to the jail of this county on suspicion of their favoring the design of the Indians, but nothing appearing against them, are ordered discharged.

  • Charles Clendenning was exempted from the levy this year; this was usually because of advanced age.

  • Alexander Sayers, Gentleman, having insulted the Court by appearing before it intoxicated and twice abusing the Court, was committed to the sheriff.

  • Alexander Sayers, Gentleman, having made proper concessions for abusing the Court yesterday, is released from his recognizance.

  • 10 December: Daniel Young sold to Samuel Beard, for 12 pounds, 260 acres at Snodon's Spring, teste: Thomas Harrison, Egeniah Virden, Jeremiah Harrison. Chalkley, Vol III page 842. Who is this Samuel? Here is more information pertaining to a William Snodon, for whom this spring is probably named, which gives the location: in road order, a road was "ordered from Abraham Smith's to the road that leads to Swift Gap Run, via John Douglas' crossing, Dry River above James McCoure's field, crossing Cook's Creek, between William Snodon and Alexander Heron's (Herring's?) meadow fence and by Edward Shanklin's to the main road that leads to Swift Run Gap." Today, Swift Run Gap is entered at State Highway 33 which goes through Elkton and the Gap. This is the Shenandoah area.

  • In the fall of 1764, Colonel Henry Bouquet led an expedition to the Ohio Country to negotiate the end of the French and Indian War terms with several tribes and to obtain the release of all captives held by them since the beginning of hostilities in about 1753. This Indian conflict was later called "Pontiac's Rebellion". Many of the families in the area of the Cowpasture had lost family members to this war. In November of 1779, a John Beard was among men who proved their service as soldiers in an independent corps on this expedition. See November 1779.

The beautiful Cowpasture River, with Griffith's Knob in the background. Our Beard family lived on the Cowpasture near Griffith's Knob.


  • Indian raid on the Mayse home on the Cowpasture River, neighbors of our Beard family at the time. Joseph Mayse, his mother, a Mrs. Sloan and her infant, and another girl were all captured and taken away. This was just two years after the Clendennon Massacre. Our ancestor, Samuel Beard, was just ten or eleven years old. This would have been quite an event in the lives of our family.

  • 15 April: William Beard, claim for provisioning the militia presented in Court. Also on list are Ralph Laverty/Lafferty and David Doage/Doak.

  • May: grand jury presentments: a William Beard mentioned who lived in Bedford County, Virginia, probably not our line.

  • 25 May: In the case of "The King against William Beard", a presentment of the grand jury for not keeping the road in good repair. He was the overseer. Summoned and not appearing, fined fifteen shillings. Is this the same as the previous item?

  • May: Joseph Ray vs William Chandler: jury brought in a verdict but it seems to the Court that the jurors "misbehaved themselves" in bringing it in. Verdict is declared null and void, sheriff ordered to summon a new jury of twelve men.

  • Valentine Sevier is added to titheables, probably a junior.

  • Mathew Bray committed to prison on suspicion of being a lunatic, but is now restored and is discharged.

  • The King vs John Bowyer: on indictment for beating and abusing Israel Christian, a magistrate in the execution of his office. Defendant waives his former plea because he "will not contend with our Lord the King". Convicted and fined.

  • James Huston complains that he was given a "bad double loon". (doubloon!)

  • 23 September: James Beard was cited as a neighbor in the sale of 232 acres on branch of Buffalo Run, probably in the Shenandoah area. The next site, of 12 October, is for the Cowpasture River area, so we definitely have two different James Beards, one in each area, who may or may not be related.

  • 12 October: Cowpasture River area: Processioning: At intervals, the Court ordered that a committee of men visit all the property owners and walk the boundaries of their lands and mark them. This was called processioning, and it provides us with a list of landowners in order in a certain area. This was a very important processioning record for us: "As it has pleased your Worships to send an order to nominate four persons in the Cow Pasture to mark the lines of the several plantations theree, we the subscribers hereof have gone from the Forks at Jackson's River upeard to Joseph Mayse, and Thomas Feamster and William Black from there to the head of the waters. There is many places that there is no livers in and others that doth not know their lines. The names of such as have f'd [followed?] their lines are as follows. Signed, James McCay, James Scott." McCay and Scott marked for themselves and for William Gillespie, John Handley, William McMurry, James Beard, John Dickenson, James Hamilton, Ralph Laverty, John Cartmill, James Hughart, Robert Stuart, Charles Donally, and Thomas Gillespie. Their cohorts, Feamster and Black, marked for themselves and for James Mayse, John McCreery, James Knox, James Shaw, George Lewis, James Clements, Hugh Hicklin, Charles Lewis, John Kinkead, Robert Hall, Boude Estill, William Jackson, and James Bodkin. This very important document shows that James Beard was neighbor to John Handley, whose son Alexander was the captain of Samuel and John Beard's militia unit during part of the Revolutionary War, and also neighbor to John Dickenson, who was the militia officer named in Samuel Beard's 1832 Revolutionary War Pension Application as his commander.
6130321 orig

The Cowpasture River Valley bottomlands, with Rough Mountain in the background.

  • 12 October, same date as above: John McClelland to Edward Sharp, 30 pounds, 60 acres by patent of 3 November 1750, and conveyed to Charles Milligan 17 November 1752, conveyed by Milligan to McClelland, on head of Looney's Creek.
  • 19 October  William Gallespy [Gillespie] and James Beard are appointed Surveyors of the Highway from above the Pedlar Ford on James River to Captain Dickinson's and it is ordered....  This cite is for the Cow Pasture area.


  • The first hotel opened at Warm Springs. The natural water temperatures are around 106 degrees.

  • David Laird and James Beard were appointed the overseers of Frances Viers, in the estate of David Viers. Probably Shenandoah.

  • 9 July: James Beard and David Laird, exectors of David Viers. Chalkley, Vol III page 457. Probably Shenandoah.

  • Edward Beard on tax list, Augusta County, Probably Shenandoah.
  • 20 August 1766  O. S. page 205:  Ordered that John Dickinson Gent. and William Hugart take an account of the titheables and divide the road from within eight miles of the Pedler Foard [Ford] to Captain Dickinsons, whereof William Galespy and James Beard are surveyors and make report thereof to the next Court.  This is the Cow Pasture area, and this is definitely our James Beard.
  • Joseph Carpenter Sr and William Whooley are appointed road surveyors from Fort Defiance to Handley's Mill. On a list of their crew are Nathaniel Carpenter, Thomas Carpenter, Zopher Carpenter, James Leeper, and Joseph Carpenter Jr. This is the Jackson River/Cowpasture River area.

  • November: Sheriff ordered to repair the pillory and underpin the stocks two feet from the ground and place a gate at each side of the bar.

  • Hugh Coffey early patented lands along the Cowpasture River. Sold by his son John Coffey this year to John Ramsey. Lands later owned by McDannaolds/McDonalds.

  • November: "This day Samuel Crockett came before me and made oath that he, the said Samuel Crockett, served as sergeant at Captain John Dickinson's on that Cowpasture River under the command of Captain Walter Cunningham from 27 of November to 20 of March in said company, and said that John Clendennen, being neglected from the former to the latter date of being returned in the payroll and was out of his pay. Signed John Dickinson "


  • 19 May: James Leard (probably Laird) is apointed overseer of the road in the room of William Beard. Probably Shenandoah area.

  • 19 May: Jacob Lockhart's bond with Mathew Arbuckle and Isaac Ward, as administrator of estate of Chas Lockhart.

  • 19 August: John Beard and James Sayers/Sawyers Jr are appointed in the room of Robert Armstrong and George Moffatt, road building

  • 21 August: William Beard is on a list of witnesses, Augusta County. This is probably for the following cited court case. Others who will appear are Patrick and John Frazier, George Carpenter Jr, Randall Lockhart, Catherine Shirley.

  • 22 August: John Sevier is on a jury.

  • In case of Andrew Fitzpatrick vs John Jones: the following were attached: One old saddle, one fine shirt and stock, two coarse shirts, two pair of old drawers, seven fawn skins, two skirts of a jacket.

  • August: In Court, George Carpenter vs William Crow. Sion Robinson deposed 21 May before John Poage that he was employed by Captain Crow to help drive cattle to Pennsylvania. On their way there, "strange cattle" somehow "came into the herd" and "particularly below Fraziers". As the herd got larger, the local residents got more concerned. William English wa also deposed, as was Randal Lockhart. William Beard and Robert Shanklin were appointed to appraise the cattle.

  • Processioning: By Samuel Hamilton in Cowpasture from his house down the river to James Baird/Beard . . there follows a list of the Cowpasture settlers in order who were living along the river at this time: Samuel Hamilton, Andrew Sitlington, John Dickenson, William Sprowel/Sproul, John Donaly/Donally, Hugh Caffey/Coffey/Coffee, Joseph Watson, Andrew Muldrough, William Dougherty, John Clendenning/Clendennin, William Maze/Mayse/Mays, and James Beard. Our Samuel Beard would have been about thirteen years old at this time. It is a good bet that his future wife Rebecca was the daughter of one of these families. Many of these families went into the Southwest Territory, Tennessee, with the Beards in later years and several also went to Kentucky and then into Middle Tennessee with them. At least two of these families, the Clendennins and the Coffees, married into the Beard family. John Dickenson/Dickinson was Samuel's militia commander during the Revolutionary War. Three Sproul siblings married three Beard siblings, the children of William and Mary (Steele?) Beard. (Alexander Sproul married Jean/Jane Beard in May 1781, William "Squire Billy" Sproul married Esther Beard in 1806 and Sidney Sproul married a Joseph Beard in 1799.) Alexander and Squire Billy were sons of William Sproul and first wife, Jane (Ervin?) and Sidney was daughter of William Sproul and second wife, Susanna Ewing.

  • November: Hugh Donaho appointed surveyor of highway from Thomas Connelly's house to James Beard's ford. Shenandoah area.


  • Captain David Laird, who was married to Ann Scott Lamme/Lamb, bought land from Edward 'Beard' on the North River, Augusta County. "This land became the line between Augusta and Rockingham Counties". Shenandoah area.

  • 16 March: William Beard cited as neighbor in land deal, corner Mathew Thompson's on Collins Branch, to oak near William Beard's. Stoney Lick Branch is mentioned. Note: is this the same transaction as the Robert Scott one mentioned below? Shenandoah area.

  • 16 May: William McCandless to Andrew Moore, 150 acres, corner to Hugh Weir and Alexander Greer, corner Hugh Beard and John Weir. Chalkley, Vol III, page 362. [is this the "other" Beard bunch, in Borden Grant/Beverley Manor?] Alexander Greer notation is interesting as a Greer descendant married a Beard descendant.

  • Hemp certificates for David Doak and William Bear. [there is a Bear/Baer family in these old records, so probably not a Beard reference]

  • Robert Scott to James Scott, 196 acres, included in the recital is "an oak near William Beard's land". Probably Shenandoah.

  • 15 August: William Hall and wife Jenny of Fork of the James to John Millican of ditto, 10 pounds, 100 acres in the Fork of the James, corner another survey of William Hall's, Crawford's corner, Augusta County Deed Book 15, page 73

  • November: William Beard, Dr, to William Thornton, dressing forty deer skins. The "Dr" designation sometimes meant "drover" as seems to be the case here.

  • Processioning: James Beard again listed on Cowpasture River.
    Bath County, VA Cemetery

    A mountain cemetery in present day Bath County.

  • Fee Books, Augusta Court: William Beard, Borden's land, John Beard, Cowpasture, and Adam Beard, Bedford County all listed. This Bedford County Beard family is not related to ours, but the John of Cowpasture is very interesting. This is the first mention of this name in this place. We believe that this is John, son of James Beard of the Cowpasture (there was only one Beard family who lived on Cowpasture). He was no doubt a young man at this time. Note that a John Beard is not included in the Processioning list cited just previous to this. John no doubt still lived with his parents on the Cowpasture lands.

  • William Beard, bond with Archibald Huston as administrator of John Sheldon.

  • Called Court on George and Poll, the slaves of John Rice of North Carolina, for housebreaking. They are judged guilty but as they were under the influence of George Hendricks, ought not suffer death, but sentenced to 39 lashes and ears cropped as thieves.


  • Botetourt County is formed from Augusta County this year, as the population has increased enough to merit its own county officers and Court.

  • 16 January: Marriage license issued for John Beard. No bride's names are listed. This is possibly John, son of James, brother to Samuel, getting married.

  • 20 June: Richard Mays appointed Constable, vice is John Clendenin. Chalkley Vol I, pg 202.  Both are settlers on the Cowpasture River and neighbors to our Beards.

  • 30 July: John Harrison's will. James Beard listed as surety. Probably Shenandoah area.

  • 22 November: William Beard and wife Mary to Jacob Bowyer, 400 pounds, two tracts on Cub Run, west side of Peaked Mountain (Massanutten), "delivered to George Keesle 16 March 1781". Chalkley Vol III, page 160. See 1746. Shenandoah area.

  • This year the Reverend John Craig made an official tour of the area of the James and Roanoke River valleys for the Hanover Presbytery of Pennsylvania. He reported his findings in the official minutes of the Hanover Presbytery on 13 April 1869. There were, according to the report, eight congregations in this area of Virginia. Of interest to Beard researchers is the New Derry congregation in the vicinity of Shawsville. It had 36 families as member and this is the list of the elders of the church: Joseph Barnett, Robert Ritchie, David Robinson, Samuel Woods, William Beard, James Robertson, James Montgomery, and Hugh and Samuel Crockett. This area is near Blacksburg, and would seem to be of no great interest to our study, except for the names of Hugh and Samuel Crockett.

  • February: Robert Wilson's estate appraised by David "Doack".

  • Called Court on Jacob, a slave, for a felony. Judged not guilty of housebreaking but guilty of shooting at the children of Alexander Moore. Sentence was 39 lashes.


  • Botetourt County had been formed in 1769, the previous year. Surveyor ordered to run the dividing line between Augusta and Botetourt "as far as the Western waters".

  • 24 February: James Millican bought land from Patrick Davis and Esther, 44 acres by patent of 10 September 1767 on the Cowpasture River. Witness was Charles Lewis, Andrew and Charles Donnelly. This cite would mean that James Millikan/Millican was a neighbor to the Beard family on the Cowpasture before going to the Southwest Territory, Tennessee. Note that there is a statement in A Seedbed of the Republic that a north branch of Looney's Creek was called Milligan's Run. In the same, a reference was made to Charles Milligan living on the head of Looney's Mill Creek. Peter Looney/Luney/Luna is the ancestor of the same Luna family which married into our Beard family over sixty years later in Bedford County, Tennessee.
Patrick Davis sold land he had by a 1750 patent to James Milligan. This land is on the Cowpasture River below Robert Crockett. In 1776, Milligan sold this land to William Griffith. This land can be located by finding Griffeth's Knob along the Cowpasture River lands. There is also a small community named Griffith.  This Milligan family were close to our Beard family for several generations. A James Milligan married Jane Beard in 1792 in Greene County, Tennessee; she was the daughter of our Samuel Beard. A James Milligan was a character witness for our Samuel Beard on his 1832 Revolutionary War pension papers filed in Henderson County, Tennessee.
  • 15 May: James Beard and wife Jean sold 95 acres for forty pounds, on the north side of the North River of the Shenandoah, corner land formerly Samuel Lockhart's, to David Laird, along with another adjacent parcel of 20 acres, which was part of a land patent to Samuel Lockhart on 30 August 1748. This entry shows that David Laird had land dealings with both James and Edward Beard. It also shows that James had a wife named Jean. Edward Beard lived close to this James Beard at this time. His line of descendants is well researched. This Edward had a son named Samuel, who appears to be about six to eight years younger than our Samuel. This Samuel also moved into Kentucky at the same period our Samuel moved there.

  • 3 July: Robert Frazor/Frazer and wife Frances to Benjamin Yardley, 125 pounds, South Branch Shanando, named Cave Bottom, part of 400 acres patented to Alexander Thompson on 12 May 1742 and conveyed by him to William Beard.

  • Mary Huffman, orphan, to be bound to David Magert. He agrees to give her eight pounds, ten pence and a new spinning wheel when she comes of age, and to teach her to read and write.

  • August: John Beard appointed constable in the room of Richard Maze, Botetourt County. Richard Maze/Mayse lived on property next to our James Beard. We believe this John Beard is the son of James.

  • A David Beard sues John Stuart. Case abates by the death of the defendant. We do not know if this David is a part of our line.

From Beard's Mountain

Looking west from Beard's Mountain trail


Fincastle County was formed from Botetourt County.

  • The sheriff is ordered to advertise repair of the jail and the making of a ducking stool.


  • 12 May: Samuel Beard served on a jury, probably not our Samuel yet, but perhaps a cousin or kinsman.
  • Estate appraisal of Thomas Jackson, who died this year. He was the pastor of the Peaked Mountain Church from 1770 to 1773. Appraisors were: James Brewster, David Laird, and Archibald Houston, all of the Massanutten area near the Shenandoah River. It is revealed that Jackson possessed one of the largest libraries in colonial Virginia.


  • 12 April: Hugh Beard is appointed surveyor of the road from the Red Hill to the county line on the Cowpasture River in the room of Boston Shavor who is discharged from that office. This is almost certainly our family line, and our Hugh. "Boston Shaver" appears to be Sebastian Shawver, according to information from that family.

  • 15 April: John Beard, the Court set aside a fine. [was this because he was away with the militia? that was a common reason for this action]

  • 18 May: David Beard to be bound to Samuel Carithers and Charles Beard to be bound to John Carithers/Caruthers, to learn the trade of breeches makers and skin dressers. An earlier Court order read "Charles and David Beard, sons of Edward Beard, who fails to bring them up in a Christianlike manner, to be bound to James Allen Jr to learn trades of carpenter and wheelwright". This would be in the Shenandoah area.

  • May: case of Beard vs. Abraham Lincoln, no first name given for the Beard. This is the grandfather or great grandfather of the future President Lincoln. The dispute regarded a note on Lincoln given to Beard, dated June 1772.
  • 12 August:  A council was called at Andrew Lewis's home in Augusta (Botetourt?) County concerning the coming military operations. (see next note)  Present were Andrew Lewis, Colonel Charles Lewis, Colonel Preston, Colonel William Fleming and Colonel Christian. 

  • Fall: Troops gathered at the Botetourt County Courthouse at Fincastle to march to the Greenbriar River on their way to the Battle of Point Pleasant. On October 10, 1774, the Colony of Virginia forces went to do battle with the Shawnee and Mingo tribes, who had been attacking the settlers. This battle is considered by some historians to be the first struggle in the Revolutionary War. Andrew and Charles Lewis led the troops to the Kanawha River to advance on the forces of Cornstalk of the Shawnee. On a list of troops present are Samuel Beard with William Lowther, captain, and William Beard, with Alexander McClanachan, captain. Also listed are George and William Clendenning. A John Dickenson is listed as a captain of troop, as well.  Also on rosters preserved at the Virginia State Library are John Milican, Captain John Murray's Company of Botetourt County, David Doack (Doak) Jr, a sergeant in Captain Robert Doak's Company, a Samuel Doack, and a William Doak.

  • A David Doak married Jennet/Janet Davis. This David Doak is said to be the son of Samuel Doak who married Jane Mitchell on board a ship to America in 1736, from northern Ireland. They were also Scots Irish. Samuel died in 1772 in the Valley. Besides David, he had a son named Samuel who was the famous Presbyterian minister who went to pioneer in Eastern Tennessee and made the speech to the troops before Kings Mountain. Their sister was Isabella Doak who married a Milligan. Since our line of Beards have an early marriage with a David Doak/Doke as well as close Milligan/Milliken connections, we are most interested in all these connections.


  • From the daybook of Felix Gilbert's store at Peale's Crossroads, five miles southeast of Harrisonburg, Virginia, 1774-1777 (this was in the Shenandoah area): "Received for the Bostonians: of Patrick Frazier, one bushel of wheat; of Joseph Dicktom [Dickenson? Dickson?], two of same; of George Boswell, five and a half of same; of James Walker, one of same; of George Clark, one of same; of James Beard, one of same; of Robert Scott and son, two of same." The Virginia settlers were sending relief aid to their fellow colonials in Boston.

  • 22 November: Recorded John Potter's appraisal by John Kirk, Alexander Kirk, and John Beard, "for sojering mony under Capt Moffatt".


  • John and Archibald Crockett, the sons of Robert Crockett, sold land that their father Robert had patented in 1750. The buyer was James Beard. The land was on the Cowpasture River below James Mayse. James Beard was already a landholder in this area. He later sold the land to Richard Mayse in 1794 for 385p. In the book The History of Bath County, author Oren Morton stated that a James Beard of the Cowpasture area had removed to Tennessee by 1794. Note: in November of 1808, the will of Richard MaysMayse was written, and of interest to us is the clause that says to his son Richard, he willed all the land "he lives on, this side of the [Cowpasture] River, formerly enjoyed by John Baird". The witnesses were William Griffeth Sr, William Jr, and John Gillespy. So a John Baird/Beard lived on a piece of land near James Beard and the Mayse family, this is almost certainly James Beard's son John. Note that it does not say that he owned the land, only that he enjoyed or lived on it. Annals of Bath County, Virginia.

  • James Milligan and wife Elizabeth sold to William Griffith, 44 acres on the Cowpasture, 103 pounds, patented 1767. We believe this couple to be the same who migrated to Tennessee and were with our Beards there on documents.  This Cowpasture land was very near the land of James Beard.   We find a very good interactive map of the area of the Cowpasture where our Beards were located here .  One can find Griffith's Knob and then find "Beard's Gap" just a bit northwest of Griffith.  The Beard lands were east of Beard's Gap.  There is a Beard's Gap walking trail with wonderful views of the area in Douthat State Park.  This is an old engraving of Griffith's Knob on the Cowpasture.  Click on the picture to enlarge:

  • 29 April: Will of Thomas Armstrong, witness listed John Beard.
  • On a list found in "Soldiers of the American Revolution from Southwest Virginia", part of The Annals of Southwest Virginia by Lewis Preston Summers: John Baird, Captain, Botetourt County.

  • 2 September: Letter from Col William Fleming to Captain George Givens from "The Revolution on the Upper Ohio 1775-1777, compiled from the (Lyman) Draper manuscripts". "Sir: It is thought necessary that a company should march to the protection of the Inhabitants of Greenbrier and as the Field Officers have appointed you to that charge, you will immediately endeavor to get the company completed, you are to have Lieut. Beard from Captain Hanley's and an Ensign from Capt Dean's companies for your officers . . ." This is definitely our Samuel Beard's older brother John, whom we know served with Hanley.

  • 18 September: "Samuel Beard, receipt to Thomas Madison for his pay for beeves [beef] for Cherokee expedition. Witnessed by Patrick Campbell." Found in the Preston and Virginia Papers of the Draper collection of manuscripts. Thomas Madison was Commissary Officer during the expeditions against the Cherokee Indians. He was second cousin of future President James Madison. He was an Augusta County native who served as sheriff. He married Patrick Henry's sister.

  • Fall: Colonel William Christian led an expedition to the Cherokee lands to the southwest. The troops gathered in early August in Botetourt County and went to the "long island" of the Holston River in what is today the state of Tennessee, at Kingsport. At a crossing on the French Broad River, there were gathered over three thousand Indians under British command. The Indians retreated. See treaty notes at July 1777. Many of the soldiers would return to this exact area as settlers in the years after the treaty, including our Beards.  From several cites concerning the beef, it appears that both our John Beard (who was the captain) and our Samuel Beard, John's younger brother, were involved with this operation.


  • The descendants of Robert Gillespie/Gillespy, one of our Beard family's neighbors, have a record of Robert's son William Gillespie serving three months this year under Captain John Beard at Donnelly's Fort, Virginia, in modern day Greenbrier County, West Virginia. See note of 2 September 1777, above.

  • The Watauga Association lands, west of Virginia in what is now the state of Tennessee, became a part of North Carolina.

  • 1 March: from The Preston and Virginia Papers of the Draper collection of Manuscripts, "Hugh Hicklen, per John Beard, receipt to Thomas Madison for 4 pounds, 12 shillings, 6 pence for beeves for the Cherokee Expedition. Witnessed by Patrick Lockhart." This is one of many receipts listed, paying for the supplies for the Cherokee expedition of the previous fall.

  • July: after the Cherokee expedition, a treaty was signed at the "Long Island of the Holston River" which is in present day Kingsport, Tennessee. The date of the treaty was 20 July 1777.

  • Fall: Colonel Skillern and Colonel Dickenson went to the fort at Point Pleasant with about 700 men from Botetourt County. This was a part of the actions against the Shawnee tribe. While the troops were at the fort, Lieutenant Gilmore of Botetourt County was killed by the Indians. When his body was found by his fellow soldiers and friends from home, they killed the Shawnee chief, Cornstalk, and his son Niseko, who were being held by the commander of the fort, Matthew Arbuckle, as hostages. General Hand came and ordered the Botetourt troops to return home as it was too late for the expedition to begin. The very next year, the Shawnees came back and attacked the fort.See note at 1778. When it proved too difficult to take, they spread out over the Greenbriar and Cowpasture settlements, attacking settlers there and causing terror.
Mountain Mille Trip Oct 2009 112

Dusk in the Shenandoah Valley


Greenbriar County was formed from Botetourt and Montgomery County, Virginia.

  • William Beard appointed constable, William Thompson vice, no area specified, probably Shenandoah.

  • Rockbridge County was formed from parts of Augusta County and Botetourt County. Our Beards probably had land that was in Rockbridge, as well.

  • The Shawnees attacked the fort at Point Pleasant. Repulsed there, they headed for the Greenbrier settlements, a favorite target. John Pryor and Phillip Hammond volunteered to go and warn the settlers. They alerted the garrison at Donelly's Fort in the Greenbrier area of Virginia. Colonel Arbuckle, the commander, was at home on a leave, but he and Captain Lewis raised a company of men and came to the aid of the fort, stopping the Indian attack. During this period, General George Rogers Clarke stopped at Point Pleasant, on his way to take possession of the post at present day Vincennes. Most of this account is taken from the 1832 Revolutionary War pension application of William Pryor, a Botetourt soldier and eye witness who was at Point Pleasant during this time.
  • 26 February: In the southwest Territory, John Beard, entered land on head of west fork of Flat Creek, 400 acres, warrant originally issued to Peter Hopkins for Thomas Houghton. This is an early cite for the "other" John Beard of the Southwest Territory, who had many land dealings on and around Flat Creek of the Holston River. He is probably a brother of William and Joseph Beard, also mentioned on deeds in this area.We do not know if this family is related in any way to ours. He was active in the militia as a captain and became notorious for his role in pursuing some friendly Indians and killing several innocent, friendly Indians. See May and June, 1793 cites in this timeline. He also may have moved to land closer to Knoxville area at some point. Researchers need to read carefully for the land markers to distinguish between this John Beard/Beaird and our John Beard, brother of Hugh and Samuel. An early account of his life, written by a friend, is here.


  • April/May: our Samuel Beard served in the volunteer militia commanded by Colonel John Dickenson/Dickinson. The provided protection for the settlers in Bath and Greenbrier Counties, Virginia from the Shawnee Indians. The Indians were taking advantage of the Revolutionary War fighting to wage their own war on the western side of the settlements. His brother John was Samuel's captain in this unit and John Patterson was his lieutenant. We know that this John Beard was his brother, as Samuel states this in his 1832 pension application. Samuel Beard served with this unit for two years.
  • First mention of a school in this area. Almost all could read and write, but education was considered a family matter and not the job of government.
  • 27 May: In the Southwest Territory, James Millican was fined 24 pounds for insulting the Court. In the same, James "Milican", 5,000 pounds bond for future duty as witness for the state in State vs Tate. (this appears to be the proceeding against Samuel Tate, see 24 May 1780)

  • 10 August: Hosea Rose? Ross? was granted 100 acres, south side of Horse Creek, issued 12 January 1793 to Samuel Beard.
  • 31 August: Hugh Beard and Abner McCreary mentioned on land grant, 100 acres on Dumplin Creek, north side French Broad River, originally issued to Michael Bacon. Issued 29 July 1793. #1249 (#1560)

  • 1 October: John Beard, William Henson, original warrant, 100 acres north side of Holston River. This looks to be the "other" John. See note below for 12 November 1779.
  • 31 October: Hugh Beard entered land on north side of the French Broad River, 150 acres, North Carolina Land Grant #1304 (#2101), issued on 17 July 1794. This seems to be the earliest record of one of the Beards claiming a land grant in the Southwest Territory.
  • 12 November: John Beard/Beaird and John Brown, 300 acres north side of the Holston River on branch of Flat Creek, issued 27 November 1792. (#2201) Seems to be the "other" John.

  • 16 November: In Augusta or Botetourt County Court, James Bell, John Beard, Alexander Kirk made proof by Alexander mcClenachan of their services as soldiers in an independent corps in the expedition under Colonel Bouquet in 1764.


  • Samuel Beard is apptd Surveyor of the Road in the room of Hugh Beard, who is dischd from that office, who with the usual tithables is to keep the same in repair as the law directs." No month listed, Botetourt County records. We believe that Hugh was not a resident any longer; he was listed on records in the Southwest Territory by now.
  • 6 January: In the Southwest Territory, a John Beard entered land on the north side of the Holston River, 100 acres, Robert Coyle was the original warrant, other named on abstract are Joseph Beard and John King. (#632) We believe that this is the "other" John, who was related to both Joseph and William Beard of Montgomery County, Virginia, and on many records with and near them. He seems to have had lands entered around Holston River. This is important to know in order to sort the two Johns out.

  • 14 January: Service was proved in Captain Dickenson's Company of rangers for the period 1756-1757: Joseph Ward, James Ward, and William Ward all served. Is this the same Ward family the Beard family knew later in Tennessee?

  • 23 January: Hugh Beard, entered 150 acres North Carolina land grant, "beginning at a stake", need better land description, issued 10 November 1784.

  • 19 March: Called court on John and William Woods for breaking John Beard's mill and stealing grain. Discharged. What part of Botetourt/Augusta County is this?

  • 24 March: James Beard, no inhabitant

  • 11 May: Service proved in Captain Dickerson's Rangers for James Baird and Richard Maize in the French and Indian Wars.This would be about 1755-1763. Page 163, Botetourt Order Book. There are many familiar family names in the list of rangers who served in this unit. The Mays family lived on lands contiguous to our Beards in the Cowpasture River Valley.

  • Same: James Beard, heir at law to James Beard, Junr, deceased, proved to this court that the said decedant served in Captain Dickerson's Company of Rangers last war until it was legally disbanded as a soldier and that he was afterwards killed by the Indians, and that he never before proved such service nor obtained and land in consideration thereof under the King of Great Britain's Proclamation of 1763. This record is very important to us, for Captain Dickenson was a close neighbor on the Cowpasture. We believe that James Junior was the brother of our Samuel, John, and Hugh Beard, all sons of this James Beard, heir at law to James, Jr.

  • Same session, on a jury are listed James Mitchell and Samuel Pryor. There will be several James Mitchell Beards in generations to come, and Joseph Pryor/Prior was the name of Samuel's captain during his Revolutionary War service 1781-1782. An early record is for marriage of a Robert Beard to Sarah Mitchell, daughter of James Mitchell. This Robert Beard left the Valley and went to Eastern Tennessee about the same time as our Beards, but he stayed there when they left for Kentucky.
  • 24 May: In the Southwest Territory, Samuel Tate was given 10,000 pounds bond in court session; Andrew Greer and Joseph Bullard were security for him.

  • 27 October: Captain James Robinson and Captain Alexander Handley marched this day, commanding officer was Major David Campbell. They joined with the forces of General Daniel Morgan on January 19, 1781. The Battle of Cowpens was fought two days before. Since Alexander Handley was Samuel and John Beard's captain, we can assume that they were serving in this unit at this time.

  • 30 October: Drafts from the companies of Captain McClanachan and Captain Pauling should hurry their march. It was reported that the British had landed at York, Virginia. Captain Lockhart advised that volunteers from Botetourt County would begin their march a week from the following Monday.


  • In this year it is noted that there were approximately 2,000 titheables listed in Augusta County and less in the other bordering counties.
  • "In 1781 practically all of the available militia of Virginia were summoned into service, taking part in the Battle of Guilford Court House, serving with Lafayette and at the siege of Yorktown." From Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War, McAllister.
  • We know that this year Botetourt County units served under General Daniel Morgan from the following note: "John Brown, Captain in 1781 of a company raised on Cowpasture in Bath County, his lieutenant was Robert Thompson. Attached to the Regiment of Colonel Sampson Mathews, which served under Generals Wayne [Anthony Wayne]. Campbell, and [Daniel] Morgan."
  • 17 January: Battle at Cowpens, South Carolina. This was an American victory, but General Cornwallis was heavily reinforced for the next battle.

  • 1 February: Patent to John Beard, Deed Book 26. Cite? Location?
  • 6 March: Botetourt County militia present at the battle at Whitesell's Mill (sometimes Wetzell's Mill) were led by Col. William Preston and numbered 300 men in five companies, with Captains Mays, Cartmell, Wilson, Bollar, and William McClenahan

  • 15 March: Battle of Guilford Court House. General Nathaniel Greene had been reinforced by 6,000 Virginians, including many from Botetourt County. Samuel Beard describes being at this place, under his brother John, in his pension application.
  • From the Revolutionary War Pension Application of James Tribble: he states he volunteered with Captain William McClenahan and went from Botetourt County to protect the Ironworks in Virginia, then to the Haw River, to the Deep River in North Carolina. After three weeks there, returned to the Haw River, then to Reedy Fork/Creek, then to Guilford.

  • CHECK YEARS April/May: Samuel Beard completed a two year service on the frontiers of Virginia and was discharged. He now began service in the volunteer militia in the regiment of Botetourt County Militia commanded by Colonel "Skillings" [George Skillern of Botetourt County] with his captain, Joseph Prior/Pryor, and his lieutenant was his brother, John Beard. Samuel, in his pension application in 1832 and 1834, seems to say that they "stood their draft" as reserve units, moving to duty whenever needed, for ten months. Samuel says he furnished a "waggon and team" and hauled provisions to the troops for six weeks on a march to Bottoms Bridge, which is near Richmond, and then to Yorktown. This tour of duty lasted nine or ten months and he was discharged at Yorktown after Lord Cornwallis surrendered. See Samuel Beard's Pension Application .

  • 10 May: Virginia Legislature meets in Richmond but quickly adjourned to Charlottesville on 24 May, due to incursions by the British troops. On 4 June, Bannister Tarleton attacked there and the entire legislature, including Patrick Henry, then adjourned to Staunton in the Valley.

  • 10 May: Court ordered that 600 pounds were to be paid to John Beard for keeping John Wormsley one year. there is a John Wormsley mentioned in the Chalkley research, and he bought land in 1779 in Rockingham County, in the Shenandoah area. so this John Beard is probably not of the Cowpasture River Beards.
  • 12 July: Amongst officers listed serving on this date from Botetourt County is John Baird, a Captain, vice Hanley. This information is also stated on Samuel Beard's pension applications, as he served as a private in this company. Also noted serving in this company under John Baird/Beard are George Frazier and William Scott. From Virginia Military in the Revolution. Listed also in Annals of Southwest Virginia: John Baird, Captain, Botetourt County. This certainly is our John, from the Cowpasture, as Samuel Beard later described serving under a Hanley/Handley with his brother John as his lieutenant. Note that Hugh is conspicuously absent--he has made his way to the Southwest Territory before this time and is serving there.
  • 17 August: (this could be 1780 or 1781) William McClenahan is appointed Lt Colonel of the militia in this company in the room of Thomas Rowland, who resigned his office. Pat Lockhardt, Major, and John Baird, Captain, in the company late Hanley/Handley's, and George Frazier, First Lt, in said company. Note that Samuel Beard described serving under his brother, Lt John Beard, in Handley's company. **Handley taken prisoner, describe Hewitt app, Virginia Militia in the Revolution...
  • 13 September: William Scott appointed ensign in Capt Baird's company of militia. Mathew Amacks, who lost use of his arm by a ball received in the Guilford Battle is exempt from county levy in future.

  • 24 September: Thomas Hewit, Gent., produced a commission from His Excellancy Thos Nelson, the Governor, constituting him sheriff of this county for the ensuing year. Whereupon the said Thos Hewit took the oath of sheriff and entered into bond with James Brewster, Andrew Hudlow, Robt Cravens and Jas Baird, his securities for the due execution of this office. From the Brewster name, this may be the Shenandoah area.

  • 17 October: Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown. We know our Samuel and John Beard were there. From William Neel's Revolutionary Pension Application, he states that he "had the pleasure of being with the army at the surrender of Cornwallis. . . saw the British Army march out and ground their arms to the American and French forces." The battalion to which he was attached was commanded by Major Patrick Lockhart and "was stationed next to the French Battery on a high bank next to the York River."

  • October: William Mayse/Maze Will: William Maze Sr of Cowpasture, sons William and Richard, daughters Sarah Murray, Mary Scott, wife Margaret, witnesses James Beard, John Beard, and Mary Clendening. James and John made oaths as witnesses on 8 March 1783. This is probably James and his son John Beard, who is the captain referred to this year. They are neighbors to the Mayse family, their lands were contiguous.

  • 7 November: In Greene County, Tennessee Territory, a Deed of Conveyance from William Inglish/English to Saml Beard is admitted to record. 327 acres. Our Samuel was on a Tax List in 1783, still on the Cowpasture River in Virginia, listed with his father James beside him. This could, however, be Samuel buying land to move onto in a year or two, or it could be a different Beard.
  • Go here to see a list of Beard and Milliken records in the index to the Greene County, Tennessee Deed Books.


  • 31 August: At a meeting of the field officers for the County of Botetourt for the purpose of carrying into execution and Act entitled An Act for Recruiting this State's quota of Troops to serve in the United States Army for the Term of three years, or during the War, were present George Skillern, County Lt, Hugh Crocket, Col, Wm McClenechan, Lt Col, Pat Lockhart, Major. This sounds very much like a local draft board meeting!

  • George Rogers Clark is reported to have been part of Botetourt County, Virginia troops.

  • Included in the listing of men and company assignments is the following list of Captain Baird's Company, 27th and 28th District, Captain John Bollar's Company: David Whooley, Thomas McMurry, Wm McMurry, George Frazer, Wm Frazer, Joseph Frazer, James Gilliland, Jacob Cairns, Felty Miller, Robert Hill, Joseph Haynes, Benjamin Haynes, William Haynes, George Cairns. And, from McAllister's data, "Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War", the statement that at the battle at Whitesell's Mill (sometimes spelled Wetzel's Mill) in North Carolina on 6 March 1781 was the militia led by Colonel William Preston, containing 300 men in five companies. The captain of these five companies listed are "Mays, John Cartmill, Matthew Wilson, John Bollar, and William McClenahan. Therefore it appears that our John was in the action in North Carolina. The descendants of Gaspar Vaught of the Valley report that he served in the Botetourt County company of Captain Baird.

  • David Doak married Jennet Davis [Janet Davis]

  • Archibald Dunlap Sr [born 1765] married Elizabeth Beard


  • In this year, we start finding North Carolina land grants to our Hugh and John Beard, and they are listed on the Greene County, Tennessee Tax List listed side by side. [Tennessee was not yet a state, but we will refer to Greene County, Tennessee to help locate our Beards. This can be confusing, as there is also a Green County, Kentucky involved in our history. The eastern part of Tennessee was originally known as "The Southwest Territory", being southwest of Virginia. In 1777, it became a part of North Carolina before becoming the state of Tennessee in 1796. Many of the citizens of Augusta and Botetourt County start moving into the area, moving down the Holston River into beautiful land.
    Day 1- Sun and geese

    The Holston River

    We are fairly certain that Hugh Beard was there a few years earlier than his brother/kinsman John, as there are earlier "sightings" of Hugh while our John was still serving with the troops in Botetourt County, Virginia. But, by this year, our John seems to appear in the SW Territory, many times side by side with Hugh. Remember, there was an earlier John Beard/Beaird/Baird there who does not seem to be related to us, and he was also a Captain in the militia.

  • Greene County was formed from Washington County, North Carolina in 1783. Many Virginia Revolutionary War veterans and their families start moving into the area and claiming land. Historians say that most of the men on the 1783 Greene County Tax List LINK were Revolutionary War veterans and they were sometimes referred to as "The Overmountain Boys" and "The Nolachuky Boys". [The Nolichuckey River, sometimes called The Chuckey, is a main river of the area and important to our Beards' history.there is actually a creek south of Horse Creek of the Nolichuckey called Beard's Creek.]
  • In the book Tennessee Soldiers in the Revolution by Penelope Johnson Allen, originally published in 1935, we find Hugh Beard on a list, about which list the author states: "Soldiers from all over the state [North Carolina] entered land in North Carolina's vast western domain but the list which follows is confined to those soldiers who were paid by Bledsoe, Carter, and Williams, indicating that they were living during their time of active service in the counties of Washington and Sullivan [North Carolina, now Tennessee counties]. These payments began on June 12, 1782, and continued until August 15, 1783." This would seem to prove that our Hugh Beard was present in this area at the time of the Battle of Kings Mountain, as we have always suspected. His brothers were on records serving in Virginia; Hugh himself obviously served, but why was he not with them on the Virginia records? We think we have our answer--he had gone into the part of Virginia that became Washington County, North Carolina, and then the Southwest Territory. These men were the "Over Mountain Men" who marched with John Sevier to the Battle of Kings Mountain. This would also explain the close relationship he had with the Seviers.

  • Greene County Tax List: Hugh Beard, John Beard, side by side. James "Millican" next on list. A Cornelius O'Neal, and also, a James "Cosbey" is on the same list. James Cosby/Cozby was a physician who is noted in several accounts of the early history of Knox County, Tennessee, in the same area where Hugh Beard would settle in later years.

  • There is unrest in Greene County, as the settlers perceive a lack of support by the North Carolina government. They feel that they are out on the line, providing protection from the Indians for the eastern colonies, but the state is not providing military or financial support for their benefit. This creates the sentiment that led to the formation of "The State of Franklin". LINK

  • Virginia Tax List by Captain George Frazier: In Cowpasture, below Botetourt line, the only Beards listed on Cowpasture or in this entire area. Most importantly, they are listed side by side. This is the last Virginia tax record of our known Beard family: Beard, James 1 slave, 4 horses, 10 cows and Beard, Samuel 1 slave, 4 horses, 11 cows. Also on the list is John Clendenning with 1 slave, 8 horses, 17 cows. Other names familiar to our study are Philip and John Fogle, William and Richard Maze, and Sebastian Shaver ("Boston Shaver" who was noted with Hugh Beard in 1774, see that year) On Jackson's River, not far away, below the Botetourt line are the Manns, many of them, and the just as numerous Carpenter families, and William Sprowl/Sproul. Moses Mann is listed with the many Mann families, and he is the father of Diodema Mann who married Samuel Beard's son Josiah.
  • Date? John Beard, 400 acres on the west fork of Flat Creek, no entry date is given, issued 26 December 1791. This would be the "other" John, as Flat Creek is on Holston River.

  • 23 October: #303 Hugh Beard entered land and a warrant was issued to him for 200 acres ""on the waters of Sinking Creek". Isaac Taylor and Joshua Gist were assigned this land, issued on 20 September 1787.

  • 24 October: In the language on a land grant issued to Jesse Green, Grant #18 (#69) for 600 acres, "beginning at a stake on John Beard's line, north side of the French Broad River on first big creek below the mouth of Dumplin Creek. . . " Another name on the grant was David Campbell. This area was close to the little town that would become Dandridge. We know that Hugh Beard eventually had property very close to Dandridge from John Sevier's diary entries. Because of this land's location near Hugh Beard, we think that this is his brother/kinsman John, from the Cowpasture River valley.
  • 27 October: Hugh Beard entered land, 300 acres "warrant originally to Hugh Beard" on mouth of Dumplin Creek. Assigned to Isaac Taylor, issued September 1790. #302 See note above, 23 October.
  • 29 October: Hugh Beard, Isaac Taylor on grant originally issued to James Crump, on waters of William Emerys River, 300 acres. Issued 26 December 1791.
  • 1 November 1783: Hugh Beard, land grant 618. Washington County, North Carolina, 150 acres bounded by Eman? Dedusky crossing Horse Creek, adjoining William Inglish/English. Sealed at New Bern 10 November 1784, same number is sealed at Kinston on 1 November 1786. [The neighbor's name is Emanuel Sedusky/Sadowski and he had two land grants listed next to Hugh's on the list of "North Carolina Land Grants in Tennessee". He was also in Augusta County, Virginia before Tennessee.] Did Hugh also have two separate grants? This one is listed as 618, another is listed as 625, see 1784.


  • In Rockingham County, up in the Shenandoah area, James Beard is listed as a head of family with 10 souls, 1 dwelling, and 4 outbuildings.

  • 6 June: John Beard entered a land grant, #623, in Washington Co, North Carolina (Tennessee). North side of Holston River on head of a branch of main fork of Flatt Creek. (Flat Creek) 100 acres, Grant #199. It was issued on 20 September 1787. This is certainly the "other" John, on Holston.

  • 21 June: John Beard, north side of Holston River, 120 acres, warrant originally issued to John Murphy, other named persons, Michael Pryor, Sarah Taylor, entered this date. This is the "other" John.

  • 25 June: Martin Armstrong's original warrant was assigned to John Beard "on north side of French Broad on Deep Creek". Issued 20 September 1787. #1333

  • October: In Cowpasture area, Richard Maze, payment for beef; Moses Mann ordered to view the road; Richard Maze appointed surveyor of the road from the county line to the Red Hill, succeeding Samuel Beard. This is the last mention of Samuel in Virginia. We believe that he and James Beard left for the Southwest Territory 1783-4.

  • From North Carolina Land Grants in Tennessee: Washington County, North Carolina [Tennessee], Hugh Beard, listed next to two grants to Emanuel Sedusky: 640 acres Horse Creek next to another Sedusky grant. Adjacent Neel McGuire, Jacob Broils, Thomas Patton? Dutton? William Engles/Inglish, and Hugh Beard. Sedusky grants #615 and 616.
  • 10 November: Hugh Beard entered land on Horse Creek. See 1 February 1790. Is this #618?


  • 16 April: Thomas Beard and Sarah Jameson were married in Augusta County, she is the daughter of George Jameson. No relationship known.

  • 30 May: Robert Beard married Sarah Mitchell in Augusta County, the daughter of James Mitchell. We do not know if this Robert is related to our Beards. The name James Mitchell Beard, however, has been carried down in our generations. In 1786, a James Beard would die and his will named James Mitchell as his executor.

  • John Beard is allowed pay for a team and driver in the service of the militia.

  • 10 August: Greene County, Tennessee: James Beard, indenture: James Beard, Esquire, and Matthias Hoover, both of Greene County, 400 pounds Virginia currency paid, two parcels on the south bank of the Nolichuckey River, both being 370 acres. Witnesses: James Stinson, Conrad Barnheart, Thomas Gragg. We believe that this is the father of Hugh, John, and Samuel, who has moved into this area in 1784. He is cited as an "Esquire", therefore we believe that he had some age and some stature in the community, being a large landholder in Botetourt/Rockbridge Counties, back in Virginia. Note that Hugh Beard had a land grant in November of 1783 in this same area, along the Nolichuckey River and Horse Creek. John Beard is recorded on Nolichuckey lands as well. Note that there is a creek south of the Nolichuckey River which runs into it, and it is called Beard's Creek.

  • 2 September: Andrew Beard enters land, 200 acres "beginning at a white oak", issued 18 May 1789. Entire cite is needed to ascertain exactly where this land lies. Could Hugh Beard or John have had a son named Andrew who has reached an age to have land now?


  • 4 January: William Baird and Martha Patterson, the daughter of James Patterson, married Augusta County. No relationship known.

  • 27 September: Augusta County, Virginia: John Milligan married Isabella Doak in Augusta County, surety Robert Torbet He is quite possibly the brother of the James Millican/Milligan family that was close to our Beard family for many years.

  • In Augusta County, Virginia: James Houston and Cornelius Alexander, the guardians of "the orphans of George Weir, deceased" vs James Mitchell, the executor of the will of James Beard, deceased. This case cites a legacy left to the daughter of James Beard, who was Jane Beard Weir. The guardians brought suit that her provision be given to her Weir children. We do not know which Beard family line to which this James belongs.

  • Greenbrier County tax list (this county formed from parts of Botetourt County in 1777) John Beard. John, the brother of our Samuel Beard is on the tax list in Tennessee, however. This is a different John.

  • "In the fork between the Holston and the French Broad River, new settlers began their clearings.. .Near [Manifold's Station] Gibson, Beard, Bowman, and Cozby settled, and with them came James White, afterwards the proprietor of Knoxville." From Annals of Tennessee, page 372. Note: in his notes, the author lists this paragraph under "Col Hugh Beard". On the next page he mentions how this particular area was growing rapidly with settlers. This place is today in and around Kodak, Tennessee, and it is about halfway between Dandridge and Knoxville, on the French Broad River. Some of the settlers along the Nolichuckey were starting to move a bit southeast and form Knoxville and Hugh Beard was among them. John Sevier also had land in this area now; his first farm was on the banks of the Nolichuckey.

  • Greene County, Tennessee: in August, Davy Crockett was born in a cabin at Limestone, on the Nolichuckey River, about two or three miles north of where our Beards lived on Horse Creek/Nolichuckey area.
Crockett Cabin1

The Crockett cabin at Limestone, where Davy Crockett was born.

  • 17 October: Robert O'Neal, patented land on the south side of the Nolichuckey River and Horse Creek, #710. It was sold to Francis Hughes on 2 April 1792. This was probably the father of Mary O'Neal who married John Carpenter in 1787, bondsman was our Hugh Beard.

  • 1 November: Greene County, Tennessee, David Campbell land grant 18 is listed as adjoining John Beard, 600 acres on French Broad River, including three islands downstream. Sealed at Kinston on this date. Is this the same David Campbell who was a Colonel in charge of some Botetourt County troops during the Revolution? This land is in the Knoxville area, not on the Nolichuckey.


  • 2 January: Greene County, Tennessee: James Graham, security for marriage of John Graham to Esther Borden. This James Graham was a neighbor on the Nolichuckey/Horse Creek properties. See September of this year.

  • 10 February: Greene County, Tennessee: Hugh Beard was bondsman for the marriage of Mary O'Neal and John Carpenter. In 1791 a Cornelius O'Neal is listed on records with our Beards, and the O'Neal family is mentioned owning land on the Nolichuckey River near the Beards. These Carpenters eventually went to Green County, Kentucky, near the line with Adair County where the Beards lived. Frances Demia Carpenter who married Moses Mann is believed to be the sister of this John Carpenter and the mother of Demia/Diodema Mann who married Samuel's son Josiah Beard in 1814 in Kentucky. The Carpenters and the Manns were settlers on the Jackson River in Botetourt County, Virginia before Tennessee, not far from the Cowpasture Valley.

  • February: Greene County, Tennessee: Hugh Beard vs William Henry, jury trial, jury found for Hugh.

  • 29 March: Augusta County: James Beard married a daughter of Samuel Tate, who consents. No bride's name is given. Chalkley.
  • May: James "Miligan" served on a grand jury in Greene County, Tennessee.

  • 20 September: Greene County, Tennessee: John Beard, land grant 199, 100 acres on Flat Creek, north side of the Holston River. Sealed at Kinston, North Carolina. North of the Holston would probably be the other John Beard, not our John.

  • Same date, John Beard, land grant 431, 400 acres Greene County, Tennessee, on north side of French Broad and Deep Creek, adjoins Edward Higgens. Sealed at Kinston 20 September, 1787, ten pounds for every hundred acres. This land is in the Knoxville area. Also find a grant listed as #1730 to John Beard, next to #1729 to William Doak, and another, #1961 to John Beard, all in Greene County this year. James "Mellihen" is listed as #1892 in Greene County, as well; believe that this is James Millican/Milligan. There was no Knox County formed as yet.

  • Same date, to James Grayham [Graham] for 50 shillings per 100a, in Greene County, north side of the Nolichucky River, includes the mouth of Horse Creek, adjacent O'Neal, south side of Horse Creek. Sealed at Kinston, North Carolina 20 September 1787. Note that Hugh Beard was bond for John Carpenter, in the marriage to Mary O'Neal in February this year. All appear to be neighbors on Horse Creek/Nolichuckey River. North Carolina Land Grants in Tennessee.

  • November: Hugh Beard served on a Greene County trial jury, John Carter vs John Galbreath.
  • November: James Milican served on a Greene County jury, Martin Prewit vs Thos Dale.
  • November: Trial held in Greene County, Andrew Leeper vs Sam'l Vance and James Miligan, jury found for the plaintiff, seventy pounds with costs. Note that the name Andrew Jackson is amongst the jurors listed for this case.

  • December: State of Franklin Petition. Hugh Beard and Samuel Beard signed together, and James Millikin is the next signer--his son would marry Jane, the daughter of Samuel Beard, in 1792 in this place. Many names important to Tennessee history are on the petition, including Andrew Jackson. There are two James Millikin/Millikans, and a Thomas Millikan. See the entire petition and signers here.


  • Skirmishes take place between factions in Eastern Tennessee. John Sevier's forces watch the activities of one Colonel Tipton, who is leading opposition against the State of Franklin movement. When some property and slaves belonging to Sevier are taken and hidden at Tipton's home, a small battle occurs on 28 February 1788; Samuel Beard is mentioned as one of the men gathered with the forces of John Sevier John Sevier, Junior was heading up one of the units involved. Samuel was described as "wearing a red overcoat" during the skirmish and having it pierced by several balls of shot. This took place a mile south of present day Johnson City, Tennessee and was recounted years later by John Sevier Jr to the historian Lyman Draper. An interesting website has many good photographs of the house and property where this all took place. Our Beard families were obviously long time supporters of John Sevier and committed to the State of Franklin cause, see next item.
  • 20 August: In the deposition of John Tipton and others versus John Sevier and others, filed in office Jonesborough August 1788: the Tiptonites testified that ". . .Hugh Beard and Joseph Hardin of the aforesaid party were aiding and abetting him the said John Sevier and others of this party to commit the hostilities aforesaid."

  • August: A young lawyer was admitted to practice of law in Greene County, Tennessee. His name was Andrew Jackson, future President of the United States.

  • Same term of court: John Hardin is appointed Register of said county and enters into bond himself with Henry Conway and Hugh Beard for securities in the sum of five thousand pounds for the due performance of the duties of his said office. Also took the necessary oath prescribed by law.

  • Same term of court: Capts Moore's and Miligan's company, Asahel Rawlings to take the inventory...

  • October: Later this year, the State of Franklin once again becomes a part of North Carolina. The cause for a state known as Franklin was given up, but the members of this movement became the molders of Tennnessee, the 16th state of the union.

  • November: Greene County Court ordered road to be laid off from John Beard's to the Greene County Courthouse, on the list for work on the road are Samuel Beard and James Graham.18


  • 18 May: #854 to Andrew Beard, 200 acres on south side of Nolachuckey River. See October 1795.
  • August: Hugh Beard listed on a jury in Greene County.

  • Back in Virginia, James Beard is on a listing of large landholders of Rockingham County. He is in Military District #4 and has 1365 acres. This is the James of the Shenandoah area. We also note that on a military voucher list of the year before, a James Beard is listed in the vouchers for the company of Captain George Huston: "James Beard, sons James and William, eight horses, three slaves." Many Hudlows and two Painters are also listed for this company.

  • November: Greene Co: Hugh Beard, absent from grand jury duty, fifa issued, then excused from duty.


  • The State of North Carolina now cedes the Southwest Territory to the United States. It is known as "The Territory of the United States, South of the Ohio".

  • 1 February: Greene County: Mathias Broyles bought 150 acres on Horse Creek from Hugh Beard. 100 pounds paid, adjoins Imanuel Sedusky survey, as by the patent of 10 November 1784. Witness: George Persons, Cornelius Newman, DB 4, page 98. Descendants of the Broyles family still live on some of these lands, and the beautiful property has been designated a Century Farm of Tennessee.

  • Date? Hugh Beard and James Milliken are on grand jury.

  • Date? Hugh Beard, jury, State vs Rachel Balum for fornication. Found not guilty.

  • Date? Road from county line south of Nolachuckey and where the war path crosses same the highest and best way to the War Ford on Big Pigeon and that Hugh Beard and Frances Hugh [Hughes] be appointed jurors to review and mark same and make report.

  • August: Greene County: Samuel Beard and Hugh Beard are on a jury together in session this month.
  • 11 August: Wm Hall, planter, to Alexr McCown, planter, 170 acres. Witnesses: John Milliken, David Taylor, James Hubbert.

  • 5 October: Isaac Taylor, assignee of Hugh Beard of 300 acres on north side of the French Broad River, Beard's land grant 824, sealed at Danbury on 5 October 1790. This land is in the Knoxville/Dandridge area.

  • 21 October: James Graham, sale of land grant #529, 389 acres Washington County. Note: Sale of this land grant 529: James Graham, blacksmith, to Samuel Doak: "between James Graham, State of North Carolina, Greene County, and The Reverend Samuel Doke of Washington County. . . 500 pounds, on Lyles line, witnesses Jonathan Collom and George Collom" [McCollom?] Washington County Deed Book 4, page 55.


  • Rockbridge County: formed from Botetourt County in 1777, Power of Attorney to Michael Bowyer to convey to David Beard. . . . There is some evidence that this David married a daughter of John Hunter. There is another record of a Michael Dickey's will, in which a David Beard is cited as his son in law. We do not know if there is any relationship of this David to our line; it seems doubtful.
  • 4 February: Benjamin Gooden and John Beard, both of Greene and Western Territory South of Ohio, 200 lbs paid, 250 acres, tract adjacent Andrew McFerson and Joseph Lusk. Witnesses: James Gooden, John Reynlds, Caleb Carter. Pg 99, Indenture
  • An Avery Beard is mentioned as serving on a Greene County trial jury this year? Case styled Richard Barker vs Joseph Carter.
  • Hugh Beard served on a trial jury in Greene County, Geo Martin vs John Tadlock.

  • May: Greene County, Tennessee: Hugh Beard on a grand jury.
  • Greene County, Tennessee Land Grant #99 for 300 acres, to Hugh Beard. Also one of same numbered 995 for 300 acres.

  • 28 May to 11 July:Treaty meetings are held which greatly affect the future of the area. According to the "Southwest Territory Militia" records, the Holston Treaty Guards included Captain Hugh Beard's Company at the treaty meetings held near the mouth of the French Broad River. See the article here. Among the names of men in this company are William Reynolds, Thomas Milliken, "a resident of Greene County", Isaac Milliken, John Beard, Robert and John Looney/Luna. We believe that Thomas and Isaac are brothers. The descendants of John Cowan note on their website that Cowan served in Captain Hugh Beard's Company during this time. John Cowan was born in 1768 in then Augusta, now Rockbridge County, Virginia. He was the son of Samuel Cowan who was killed and scalped by the Indians in 1778, when John was ten, and his mother Ann Cowan was kidnapped by Indians the same year. She escaped captivity six years later and returned to her family. The Cowans were a part of the large Scotch Irish contingent from Chester County, Pennsylvania.

  • It appears that after this Treaty was concluded, Hugh Beard moved into the area that would shortly become Knox County.

  • 7 November: Samuel Beard was a witness in the indenture this date between Michael Woods of Washington County, Territory of the United States, South of the River Ohio, one part, and James Jack, Greene County, other part, 200 acres in said Greene County on the south side of Nolichuckey River and on Cove Creek and adjoining Frethias Wall and the top of Barron Ridge. Witnesses: Cornelius O'Neal, Samuel Beard. Note that Samuel's father James Beard owned land on the south side of Nolichuckey, Hugh and John also owned land in this place.

  • 8 November: Samuel Beard and Thomas Hardwicke Jr were witness in the indenture of William Inglish/English of Rutherford County, North Carolina, one part, and George Baker other part, part of a tract in Greene County on south side of Nolichuckey River and Horse Creek, tract being 513 acres. Deed Book 1, page 155. The descendants of George Baker have made a list of his neighbors on this 513 acres along Horse Creek: Saml Beard, John Beard, James Beard, James Graham, Frances Hughes, Sperling Bowman, James Davis, William Brumley, Barnet Brumley, Lewis Broyles, Conrad Whilhoit/Wilhoit [brother in law to Broyles], Ralph Lotspiche, and John Newman. The Broyles family farm along Horse Creek is still in operation today and is designated one of Tennessee's Century Farms, as described in note of 1790.

  • No date? Samuel Beard, James Beard, John Beard, and James Graham, overseer, on road crew to lay down a road from Greeneville to Samuel Beard's. From this cite, the previous cite, and the next cite, it certainly appears that Hugh Beard had by this time moved to his lands in Knox County area, just a bit southwest of Greene County.

Mountain Mille Trip Oct 2009 031

Horse Creek, Greene County, Tennessee

  • Hugh Beard was given leave to build a mill on his own land, mouth of the Tuckahoe Creek, same privileges and restrictions as other public rist mills in this county. Tuckahoe Creek appears to be in present day Knox County; the land that Hugh owned was probably located very near where the Douglas Dam is today, on Douglas Lake near Dandridge. Knox was formed in 1792 from Greene County. As noted in note above, his brothers were still on land along the Nolichuckey at this time. A previous record shows that Hugh sold a parcel of land on the south side of the Nolichuckey River to Matthias Broyles.

  • Hugh Beard, land grant 995, 300 acres on waters of William Emeries River, adjoins William Blount's south line. William Blount became the first territorial governor of the Southwest Territory. Sealed at New Bern, 20 December 1791. This river is called the Emory now.

  • Listed in "North Carolina Land Grants in Tennessee" for this year: John Beard, 2482; Hugh Beard 2484, both in Greene County.

  • No date? Samuel Beard, James Beard, John Beard, and James Graham, overseer, on road crew to lay down a road from Greeneville to Samuel Beard's.
  • 26 December: John Beard, 400 acres on the west? fork of Flat Creek, entered?, issued this date. This is the "other" John, still doing business on Flat Creek.

Mountain Mille Trip Oct 2009 013

The Nolichuckey River


  • Hugh Beard was in charge of readying a blockhouse for defense of the Mero District in this year, and the blockhouse was sometimes called "Beard's Blockhouse". It is usually known by the name Fort Blount. Read this article to see Hugh included in this history.

  • 27 January: "Report on the Pay of Captain Hugh Beard's Company of Militia", filed by James Howell to Henry Knox (Secretary of War) are included in the Papers of the War Department 1784-1800. Howell reports that he examined the payroll for the pay of militia raised at Governor William Blount's direction as a guard to attend the treaty held with the Indians on the banks of the Holston River, and despite the absence of muster rolls, he found "no irregularities". The original document can be viewed here.

  • March: In the case of John Beard vs Hugh Donohue, a fi fa issued against Donohue.

  • 8 May: Hugh Beard sold to George Baker and Matthias Broyles for 200 pounds, a 272 1/2 acre tract on Horse Creek on the south of the Chucky River, joining John Beard and being the place where Hugh Beard formerly lived. Witness: B. Brumley. [probably Barnet Brumley, a neighbor] Deed Book 2, page 168. We believe that by this time Hugh has definitely sold land on Horse Creek in Greene County and moved over to his other land grant, in the area near present day Dandridge and Knoxville.

  • 14 May: Robert O'Neal to James Graham, 200 acres in Greene County, witnesses Malliki and Martin Click [Clack?]

  • Knox County was officially formed on 11 June 1792. "Five days thereafter, June 16, 1792, James White, John Sawyers, Hugh Beard, John Adair, George McNutt, Jeremiah Jack, John Kearns, James Cozby, John Evans, Samuel Newell, William Wallace, Thomas McCulloch, William Hamilton, David Craig, and William Lowry presented a Commission from Governor Blount, appointing them Justices of the Peace for Knox County, and appeared before the Honorable David Campbell, Esq, who in the presence of Governor Blount administered to each of them an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and also an oath of office." From the First and Second Report of the Bureau of Agriculture of the State of Tennessee, page 549, also in The Annals of Tennessee, page 568.

  • 23 June: From the Knoxville Gazette of this date, a John Beard appears on a list of "estrays". This is a list of strayed animals who have been recovered by someone and advertised. The owner was requested to claim the animal and pay the charges for their keep. This John Beard has listed a bay horse, found on May 6.

  • 30 June: From the Knoxville Gazette: a list of taxpayers for Hawkins County, John Beard and Nathaniel Evans appear on it. These two were both in military records together, as captains of militia. Hawkins neighbors Knox County.

  • From Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History, page 132: "Appointed and commissioned Hugh Beard the captain of a troop of horse of Knox County. Nathaniel Evans, lieutenant of same, Thomas Milligan, cornet. Appointed and commissioned the field officers of Knox County: James White, lieutenant colonel, Alexander Kelly, lieutenant colonel, John Sawyers, first major, Hugh Beard, second major." We must examine this cite, to answer the question, was Hugh Beard first appointed a captain and then later, a second major, or, were there two Hugh Beards, both appointed to posts? There is also a John "Baird" listed in a long list of captains.

  • July: Hugh Beard leads the mounted infantry to Mero District for a three month tour of duty to protect the inhabitants of that place from Indian attacks. Mero District is around present day Nashville.

  • 18 September: Jane Beard, daughter of Samuel and Rebecca, married James "Milligan" Jr in Greene County, Tennessee. From Greene County Tennessee Marriage Bonds. Bondsmen? listed are Alex Pretheron? and George Jamison.

  • October: From the Knoxville Gazette: "Yesterday returned to this town, from performing a three month tour of duty in Mero District, a company of mounted infantry, commanded by Hugh Beard, and two companies of infantry under the command of Captains Brown and Lusk.

  • November: a notice in the Knoxville Gazette from John Beaird, Knox County, Flat Creek, says that sometime in this month, he contracted with Thomas Ringoras Adkins of Kentucky for a bond on Robert Franks and James Boon, both of Culpeper, County, Virginia, and "the bond was forged".
  • 26 December 1792:  From the Knoxville Gazette: "The subscriber informs the public, that he has a ferry established by order of the court of Knox County, at his plantation on Holston, about six miles from Knoxville, and four miles from the onfluence of French Broad and Holston [rivers], where onstant attendane will be given.  By this ferry, it is the nearest way from Knoxville to Pirkins' Iron Works, Dumplin, and Jefferson court house. Samuel Doak"


  • In Greene County, Barnet Brumley is allowed two days service for warning the inhabitants of Samuel Beard's Company to return their inventories of taxable property for the year 1793 at 85 per day. Brumley is listed as neighbor of our Beard families along the Nolichuckey in previous note of 8 November, 1791.

  • 12 January: Samuel Beard, assignee of land issued this date, 100 acres Horse Creek, south side, originally issued to Hosea Rose? Ross? on 10 August 1779. Hosea Rose is also listed in a North Carolina land grant on Cherokee Creek in Greene County's mother county, Washington County, #690.

  • 5 February: Samuel Beard is a witness to the indenture between Robert Allen of Washington County and John Colyer of Greene County, a tract on branch of Lick Creek. Witnesses: Samuel Swan, Samuel Beard. Lick Creek is a tributary of the Nolichuckey River.

  • 13 February: Deed of Conveyance to Hugh Beard from James Richardson, Sheriff, dated this date and recorded November 1793. WHAT CO?
  • Greene County, Tennessee Land Grant #1249 to Hugh Beard, 100 acres?

  • 6 April: From the Knoxville Gazette: "Taken: On Monday the first instant, the two following described horses were taken from a certain William Robertson, and Love Snowden, on Bull Run, in Knox County, which horses, from the best evidence...appear to be stolen..." there ensues a full description of each horse, and "The owner or owners of the above described horses are desired to come and prove their right and title to the same, and pay charges. Ther persons in whose possession they were found are in custody in this county. Application may be made to Col James White, Knoxville, or to the subscriber, , living on Flat Creek, John Beaird, Knoxville, April 5, 1793.
  • 18 April:  Letter from William Blount to General Robertson is stored in the American State Papers, . . . "upon his arrival in Nashville, Major Beard will receive his orders as to his operation to protect the district of Mero from invasion by the Creeks."

The Tennessee River

  • 29 April: In the spring of 1793, more than six hundred Creek warriors crossed the Tennessee River on the warpath against the Cumberland settlements. Groups of Indians split off and "perpetrated mischief wherever it could be affected with safety, or wherever the stations were defenseless. The people were incensed that the Government left them thus without protection, and was so tardy in making provision for their defence. The complaints. . . induced Governor Blount to do something for their relief. On the 29th of April, he send one hundred twenty men from Southwest Point under the command of Major Hugh Beard to assist the people of Mero District against the Creek invasion." From The Annals of Tennessee, pages 602-603. In 1797, the federal government would officially fortify and garrison Southwest Point.

  • 18 May: From the Knoxville Gazette: " Last Tuesday week two horses were stolen by Indians from James Boyd and Stephen Graves, at McTear's Station, twelve miles from this place. And on Saturday night last, fifteen horses were stolen from Mathew Bishop's, eight miles from this place. From undoubted information we can assert that since the first of April, six hundred and sixty Creeks have crossed the Tennessee, at the lower towns of the Cherokees, for war against the district of Mero, Cumberland Settlements [Nashville]. On the 29th ultimo, a detachment of mounted infantry consisting of one hundred and twenty men under the command of Major Hugh Beard, marched from South West Point (mouth of Clinch) to the relief of Mero District." This would be the march of April 29, 1793.

  • 23 May: Article of this date appeared in the Knoxville Gazette of 1 June 1793: "Notice: Whereas sometime in November 1792, I contracted with Thomas Ringoras Adkins, of the State of Kentucky, for a bond on Robert Franks and James Boon, both of the county of Culpepper and State of Virginia, and in consequence thereof I gave the said Adkins my bond for a sum to be paid in beef cattle, on the 1st day of June 1793, in part pay for the bond so purchased, which bond is now discovered to be forged. I do hereby forewarn all persons from purchasing my bond, as I am determined not to pay the same; and I do further offer a reward of TEN GUINEAS to any person or persons who will confine the said Adkins, in any jail within the United States, and give information thereof, to the subscriber, that he may be brought to justice. John Beaird, Territory South of Ohio, Knox County, Flat Creek, near Knoxville."

  • 25 May: Thomas Gillam and his son James were killed and scalped by the Indians in the Raccoon Valley, eighteen miles from Knoxville. Captain Beard, with fifty mounted infantry, made immediate pursuit. [This was Captain John Beard/Beaird, as Major Hugh Beard was not returned until June.] From the Knoxville Gazette of 1 June 1793: "Killed by Indians, on Saturday last, Thomas Gillum and his son James Gillum, on Bull Run, eighteen miles from this place. The persons who buried them, judging from the signs, report the number of Indians to have been twelve. Trails of several other parties were discovered, making in the whole about forty. The main camp of this marauding party is supposed to be in Cumberland Mountain, in search of which the Governor has ordered out Capt. John Beaird, of Knox County, with fifty mounted infantry."

  • 12 June: From the Knoxville Gazette of 15 June, 1793: "On the morning of the 12th inst, about the break of day, Captain John Beaird, who had the command of a company of mounted infantry consisting of fifty five, made an attack on the Hanging Maw's family and other Indians, who were invited there by order of government. Major King and Daniel Carmichael were at the hanging Maw's at the time and report that Beaird's party have killed Scantee, Fool Charley, one of the Chiefs of Hightower, Betty, the daughter of Kittakidka, and others, among them a white man named William Roseberry. The Hanging Maw and his wife [are] both wounded, and Betty, the daughter of Nancy Ward. Major King and Daniel Carmichael say, that it was with great risk of their lives they escaped through the "fire of these enraged white men, and also that at their particular entreaty they spared the rest of the Hanging Maw's family, and did not burn his house." Another article published on 27 July in the same paper contained the following: "On Thursday the 16th inst, 124 men assembled at Blackburn's plantation, on the north side of Holston, seventeen miles from this place, and contrary to the ordered of government proceeded from thence, headed by Capt John Beaird of Knox County across the Tennessee, at South West Point, to the Indian towns on the Highwassa [Hiwassee] River. They returned on Tuesday the 12rd inst to this place and say that near Chestooe, the first town they came to, they killed six Indian men and a squaw, by accident, they burnt the town and proceeded up the Highwassa to the old Highwassa town. Here the Indians were as they said, in block houses and did nto shew themselves till the white men approached very near, when they fired, killed one man of the name of Jess Low, and wounded another of the name of Menasco, through the thigh. On this they returned home."

  • 14 June through 14 July: Pay roll records of Major Hugh Beard's Battalion, Southwest Territory, Mero District, "Territory of the United States, for protection of the frontiers"...field officers and staff included Indian interpreter, reimbursement for five ferries on the Cumberland River, the Clinch River, the Holston River...four horses furnished at Hanging Maw's, Tellico Block House". The Mero District would become the area of Nashville. See the official record here.

  • In The Annals of Tennessee, page 589-590, the only list of active Captains of the troops in the service of the Territory, in 1792 and 1793. This list was from published paymaster items in the Knoxville Gazette for those years. Hugh Beard is the first one listed, then captains Lusk, Brown, Rains, Doherty, Briant, Henley, Tate, Christian, Gillespie, Samples, Crawford, Cooper, Grier, Milliken, Childers, White, Gregg, Allison, King, Marshall, Bunch, Chisum, Richardson, Evans, Copeland, Cantrell, Murray, Shannon, Cordery, Nash, Parker, Edmonson, Frazier, Wm. Blackmore, Johnston, Hoggatt, G. D. Blackmore, Walker, Lieutenant G. L. Davidson, Cornet Milligan. In 1793 were added Captain Cox, Lieutenants Bird, Hubbard, Henderson, and Sergeant McClellan.
  • 15 July: William Beard, Stockley Donelson, Richard Thomerson?, original warrant, entered? issued this date. 170 acres, west fork of Flat Creek. The "other" Beard family is still doing business on Flat Creek.

View from Fort Loudoun

Fort Loudon was a British fort near the Overhill Cherokee villages, south of Knoxville.

  • 29 July: Hugh Beard, land grant 1249, 100 acres on Deep Creek, north side of French Broad River, adjoining himself, sealed at New Bern this date. Note that John Beard had a land deal on the same creek. These lands are in the Knoxville area.

  • July 1793: From "North Carolina Land Grants in Tennessee": Joseph English, assigned to Joseph Beard, 640 acre military grant. LOCATE?

  • 22 August: Samuel Beard of Knox County, Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio, one part, and Lewis Broyles of Greene County, 350 pounds paid, 327 acres in said Greene County, south side of Nolichuckey on Horse Creek, adjoining Joseph Byrd and Hugh Beard. Witnesses: George Parson, Alexander Protherow. Knox County was just formed in June of 1792. Did Samuel move to join his brother Hugh in Knox County? Or, did they own lands both places?

  • Same date as above, Samuel Beard and Lewis Broyles 50 pounds paid, 100 acres tract in Greene County on Horse Creek. Same witnesses.

  • 14 September: From Knoxville Gazette: "Notice: All persons that have obligations against the subscriber for Lands, are desired to brig them forth and receive their Grants, as I am ready to comply with them. August 29, 1793, Joseph Beaird."

  • September:  The town of Knoxille was under Indian assault. Go to this page to see an account of the attacks.  From records of an Armstrong family, Robert Armstrong III served for three months under Captain Hugh Beard near Nashville. In September he was one of the "Gallant Thirty Eight" who defended Knoxville.

  • October: John Sevier goes on the march. "Sevier's troops were geneerally his neighbors and the members of his own family. Often no public provision was made for their pay, equipment, or subsistence. These were furnished by himself, being at once Commander, Commissariat, and Paymaster. The soldiery rendezvoused at his house, which often became a cantonment--his fields, ripe or unripe, were given up to his horsemen; powder and lead, provisions, clothing, even all he had, belonged to his men." From Annals of Tennessee.

  • October: From the diary of John Sevier, in the State Archives of Mississippi at Jackson, Mississippi, we find Sevier's listings of the patrols he sent out in October of 1793, his last military operation, the only surviving list, in his own handwriting and spelling:
  • 11 October: Colonel Christian Officer of the Day, Captains Beard and Gillaspy the Vann, and Blair Rearguards.
  • 19 October: Colonel Christian Officer of the Day, Carson the Vann, Blair and Beard Rearguards.
  • 22 October: Major Taylor Officer of the Day, Captain Magehee the Van, and Carson and Beard Rearguards. Camp halfway between Highwassee and Tennessee 21 miles from last camp.
  • 24 October, at Camp Henry, Fort, the army discharged.

  • The number of free males in the territory had topped five thousand, the number needed to entitle them to a Territorial Assembly and Legislative Council. Governor Blount authorized an election to be held on the third Friday and Saturday of December, 1793. "On the 22nd and 23rd of December 1793, elections were held. . . and the people elected Alexander Kelly and John Baird for the county of Knox. . ." Annals of Tennessee.


  • 30 January, Knoxville Gazette: "Notice: I do hereby again notify the undernamed persons to attend at the court house, in Knoxville, at our county court, on the first Monday in February next, or the next succeeding court, with my obligations, in order to lift their grants, as I intend to leave this Territory, or I shall acknowledge their grants in court and sue for my bonds. Solomon Geeren? Greer?, Joseph Hines, Betie Graves, George Walker, Peter Lowrey, heirs of Thomas Gillen, Frederick Miller, William Walker, Robert Koile, Botetourt Co, Virginia, Joseph Cunningham, Tobias Tillmon, James Spencer. Signed, Joseph Beaird. Knoxville, Jan 25, 1794"

  • James Beard sold 246 acres along the Cowpasture River to Richard Mayse, [no date found, only the year] 385 pence. this is the same land that he bought from the Crockett family, see cite of 1776. This is the last land deed in Virginia found for our line of Beards, and James Beard appears in the Southwest Territory this same year, see 30 April, below.

  • 10 April: "Patents: A number of patents for land in the counties of Jefferson and Knox, formerly a part of Greene, belonging to the undernamed persons have been registered in the Registrar's office of Greene County, and are now in my possession. The owners of them are desired to pay the fees thereon and take them away. Signed, John Stone." The long list includes Hugh Beard.

  • 30 April: Indenture: Benjamin Gooden of Oglethorpe County, Georgia, one part, and James Beard, Greene County, Tennessee, other part, 300 pounds paid, 50 acres, known as Greeneville Town. Witness: John Beard, Jacob Carter, Thomas Johnson. Registered 15 July 1794, James Stinson, Deed Book 1, page 283.

  • 24 May: A James Beard married Ann Kelly, Knox County, Tennessee.

  • 20 June: "Governor Blount found it almost impossible to restrain the inhabitants south of French Broad, where this massacre took place, from an immediate invasion of the Indian territory. His efforts in this would not have succeeded but for the timely assistance and advice of the civil officers of Knox County, south of the river. These met in committee on June 20, at the house of James Beard: President, James White, Samuel Newell, William Wallace, William Hambleton, William Lowry, David Craig, and Thomas McCulloch. An address to their fellow citizens was agreed upon, printed and circulated. It is an ably writeen document and had great influence in tranquilizing the people and persuading them to acquiesce in the design of the Government, to obtain peace by negotiation, rather than by arms." The Annals of Tennessee, pages 593-594. From the previous two cites, we believe that James Beard had a home in the town of Greenville, Tennessee, and was older and held considerable lands and some influence. Did he, also, move into Knox County after selling property in Greene County?

  • 10 July: Lt Hugh Beard is on Paymaster's lists. This Hugh may be a son of John, old enough to be serving in the militia? Hugh, son of Hugh, and Hugh, son of Samuel were both born between 1780 and 1790, so they were only about fourteen at the oldest possible age; until proven wrong, we carry a son of John as this Hugh.

  • 12 August: "On the 12th inst, about ten o'clock at night, a party of Indians consisting of fifteen, attacked the Bull Run blockhouse, sixteen miles north of this place, at which a non commissioned officer and ten privates are stationed, for the defense of the frontiers, and continued around it until the arrival of Captain Beaird, with a party of neighboring militia, to its relief. The federal troops received no injury, and the fire was warmly returned, but with what success is unknown." Knoxville Gazette of August 25, 1794. Here we have the federal government attacked and having to be rescued by the local militia.

  • 25 August: The elected representatives of the counties took their seats. On the list are John Baird and Alexander Kelly for Knox County. "In justice to the members of Knox County, whose named do not appear on any of the committees, it ought to be mentioned that, on Wednesday, the third day of the session. . . that [they] have leave of absence to go on a scout against the Indians. These gentlemen held commissions in the militia of Knox County and on account of their gallantry and public spirit had been honoured with seats in the House. . .. A threatened incursion of hostile Cherokees made it necessary for them to lay down their legislative and resume their military functions. . . in a week from that time, Mr. Kelly returned and took his seat. Mr. Beard had returned the day before." Note the two different spellings in the same article. From the Annals of Tennessee.

  • 25 October: Lt Hugh Beard again on Paymaster's list. See July.

  • 23 November: As an example of the sort of news reported at this time, an article from the Knoxville Gazette reports: "On the 23rd. . . Peter Greaves was killed by Indians, within a quarter of a mile of Sharp's Station, near the south bank of the Clinch River, twenty miles north of this place. The Indians who killed him had waylaid the path and fired at so short a distance that he was powder burned. Upon being wounded he ran, was pursued, and much hacked with a sword; and from the force of the blows about six inches of the point of the blade was broke off. Two scalps were taken from his head."

  • 4 Dec: John Beard of Greene County, a bond is held with Samuel Vance.

  • 20 December: From the Annals of Tennessee: "On the 20th of December a party of Indians, about two hours after dark, secreted themselves within twenty feet of the door of Thomas Cowan, and fired upon his wife and son as they stepped into the yard, and pierced the clothes of the latter with eight balls, but he escaped under cover of the night, into the woods, and Mrs Cowan returned into the house unhurt. The firing alarmed the neighborhood, and Captain Beard was at Cowan's with twenty men within an hour and a half, and patrolled the woods the whole night in search of the Indians, hoping they would strike up a fire by which he could discover them; on the next day, by order of Governor Blount, he went in pursuit of them.

  • 25 December: Christmas Day, from John Sevier's diary: "Cloudy and some rain. Mr Sherrill, William Sherrill, Mrs Beard, Mr Andrew Beard, Mr McKee, Mrs McKee, Miss Peggy McKee, Mr Weir and wife, Mal. Murphy dined here today. Came up a thunder gust with hail and small rain." The Sherrills are John Sevier's inlaws.


  • Augusta County, Virginia, in court, James McNutt vs William Sproul. Depositions are to be taken of Robert Gamble, James Beard, and others of the inhabitants of the Southwest Territory. This document is a link between the family in Virginia and in Tennessee. We believe that our James Beard sold his last land in Virginia and took up permanent residence near his sons in Greene County and Knox County, Tennessee (the Southwest Territory) in 1794. Noted historian Oren Morton recounts in A Centennial History of Allegheny County, Virginia, page 126, that "The Beards settled on the Cowpasture River near the Bath line. (Beard's Mountain). James went to Tennessee in 1794." See May, 1797.

  • 7 January: Thomas Milikan/Millikan married Priscilla Brock in Knox County, Tennessee.
  • From the Knoxville Gazette dated 6 February 1795: "Departed this life, on the 22nd [January] ultimo, Miss Mary Weakly Doak, daughter of Captain Samuel Doak, of Knox County."

  • April: Hugh Forgey sued Joseph Beard in Knox County, Tennessee. In case originally heard in 1794. James Forgey as administrator of John Forgey's estate vs Joseph Beard, Beard accused Forgey of perjury and said that he uttered "a damned eternal lie". Forgey then sued Beard for slander, asking $1000 in damages. He was awarded $5 by the jury.

  • May: Two different cites are found: First, Jno Den on the demise of Hugh "Bears" vs Richd Fen and Barnet Brumly, and second, J. Den on the demise of Hugh Beard vs Richd Fen and Barnet Brumly. Same record, two different transcriptions/abstracts. We believe there was a "Bears" family in the same area and that this is their Hugh, not ours.  See next cite for evidence that our Major Hugh Beard was alive and well.
  • 22 May:  notice in the Knoxville Gazette that monies due in payment for infantry service will be paid out on specific dates.  Hugh Beard is on list to be paid on June 22nd.

  • 2 October: From John Sevier's diary: Fry 2nd, Went to Beard vendue. Bought 3 sheep, 13 geese and 12 ducks. 4 Oct, Sunday: Paid Mrs. Handley 2 dollars for 6 geese; paid Al. Moore for 2 C and 12 ducks; and An. Beard for 13 geese and 12 ducks. [Seems to be the payment for the vendue of two days before, seems to be the Andrew Beard. There is an Andrew Beard who went to Barren County, Kentucky, next to Adair County. On 21 Sept 1796, an Andrew Beard was granted? 200 acres of land on Harrod's Fork in Green County, Kentucky, the mother county of Adair County.] Was the vendue a moving sale, not an estate sale?
  • 13 October: Andrew Beard/Baird to Robert Allison: 200 acres on south side Nolachuckey, adjacent Box. Witnesses were Andrew Cowan, Saml Handly, Wm Lamkin.  The Andrew Beard and Samuel Handley reference seems to confirm that this is the Beard referred to in the previous cite.  We note that Andrew Beard sold land on the south side of Nolichukey River, and that this particular area is also where our line of Beards resided.  DNA results from the line of Andrew Beard would be most helpful.


  • "Captain Hugh Beard's company of the Southwest Militia is referenced as being active in this year." American Militia in the Frontier Wars by Murtie June Clark.

  • In Index to Early Tennessee Tax Lists: "Captain Beard" Knox County this year.

  • A Holland family history lists their ancestor serving in the Knox County militia under Captain Hugh Beard.

  • Statehood comes to Tennessee.

  • 27 February: John Beard, assignee of 100 acres land on Flat Creek, issued this date to? from? Stockley Donelson. This is the "other" John, on Flat Creek.

  • March: Samuel Vance vs John Beard/Beaird. See December 1794
  • Knox County court: Richard Gooden/Gorden vs Nathaniel Evans and Hugh Beard. Nathaniel Evans is listed as a militia captain in the Southwest Territory. In 1792, he was listed as a lieutenant for Captain Hugh Beard.

  • Knox County court: Stephen Duncan vs Joseph Beard and Samuel Gibson


  • February: James Law and James Taylor at the suit of John Beard vs James Rutledge brings into Court the body of the principal and surrenders him in discharge of themselves as bail and the Defendant is ordered in custody of the sheriff.

  • March: Richard Greer is on a record in Greene County, Tennessee this month.

  • 5 March: Arbitrators were appointed in case of Samuel Vance vs John Beard. They are John Gass and Robert Campbell.

  • May: James McNutt vs William Sprowl, devisee of Samuel Sprowl. Notice given by laintiff to take depositions of Robert Gamble, James Beard, and "other witnesses of the inhabitants of the Southwest Territory". Deposition of Robert Gamble and James Beard before Thomas McCullock, James Gillespie, and James Houston in Blount County, Territory South of Ohio on 22 December 1795 say that James Beard sent the pocketbook and papers of Samuel Sprowl, deceased, to his house and when William Sprowl came out to this country, Robert Gamble delivered the whole of the papers to him. Apparently a covenant to convey land to McNutt in Sevier County, State of Franklin, was contained in the packet.

  • 20 October: Deed of Trust, John Johnston and David Russell Esquires, of Greeneville, Tennessee to David McCormick of the City of Philadelphia, merchant. Tract within one mile of Greeneville, commonly called James Richardson tract, bounded by Widow Thompson land, James Wright, Widow Hood, and the land of Samuel Vance, late the tract of ___ Baird, 260 acres. ???? See 1794, James Beard bought fifty acres in Greeneville that year. This shows that a Beard/Baird was a neighbor of Samuel Vance at one time in the town of Greeneville. There was a case of Samuel Vance vs John Beard in the Court in 1796 and 1797.


  • 10 July Hugh Beard of Knox County, Tennessee one part and Nathaniel Hood, Greene County, Tennessee other part, fifty dollars paid, Lot #45 in town of Greeneville. Witnesses: James Guthrie, David Hutson? Huston?
  • 14 November: William Hall of Greene County to John Milliken, 235 acres on Big Limestone Creek, adjacent Josias martain, witnesses Thomas Embree, Robert Allen.
  • 15 November: John Milliken to Thomas Embree: 235 acres on east branch Big Limestone, witnesses Wm Hall, Robert Allen.

  • Knox County, Tennessee: Thomas Welch vs Alexander Milliken


  • 13 February: Sheriff's Deed, James Richardson, Sheriff of Greene County, and Hugh Beard, 92 acres on Nolichuckey River formerly property of George Dealy, 16 pounds paid. Beard must register this grant in Greene County office iwthin twelve months from date thereof. Witnesses: Andrew Harlaness, Edward Strange. Deed Book 1, page 217

  • October: The State vs Peter Neese, indicted for misdemeanor in office. Hugh Beard was on the jury, which found the defendant guilty.

  • A John Beard is listed as residing in Sevier County in the 1799 Petition of Sevier Countians to the Tennessee legislature. This old petitition regarding taxation and establishment of a land office was found in a scrapbook in the Sevierville Library in March of 1998. It is signed by men living south of the French Broad River at that time. It had been transcribed from the original in 1975 by the Sevier County historian. We do not know if this is our Beard family.


  • 13 June: From The Diary of John Sevier, in which the Governor is speaking of a trip by horseback that he had just completed: "Lodged at Dandridge. 14 June, Saturday, Set out early. Fed our horses at Maj. Hugh Beard's. Crossed Hollison [Holston River] at Gillums Ferry, pd 2/. Arrived Knoxville in evening." This entry shows an approximate location of Major Hugh Beard's home, and the fact that he still had a place near Knoxville in June of 1800.

From this time on we find no records of our Beard families in Eastern Tennessee. In about 1798 they undertook a move up to the Green River area of Kentucky, to lands that they appear to have been claiming from 1796. It seems that a part of the family may have moved up about 1798, with another contingent possibly coming a year or two later. We are actively searching for possible reasons for the move. We know from Samuel Beard's Revolutionary War pension application that he purchased land along the Green River from General George Rogers Clark, who owned many acres of good Kentucky land. Two events in 1794 had released a flood of pioneers into this area of Kentucky. The first was the successful expedition against the Cherokee Nickajack towns on the Tennessee River, which rendered Green County, Kentucky relatively immune from Indian raids from the south. The second was Anthony Wayne's expedition to the north, which effectively ended the Indian threat from the north. The last Indian attack in Green County, Kentucky was in April of 1792, south of the Green River on Russell Creek, at least six years before the Beard families moved there. Our families probably moved by way of Fort Nashboro, which would become the city of Nashville, up the Cumberland Trace. This trail had become well traveled enough by 1793 for wagon travel.

By 1800 a tide of migration had swelled the taxpayer's list of Green County, Kentucky to 1,545 heads of households. This county spun off, in 1796, a new one, Cumberland County, along the Tennessee border. The area just north of Cumberland was filling with settlers along the fertile bottomlands of Russell and Big Creeks. In late 1801, the legislature cut off this part of Green and formed Adair County. Our Beards were among the first wave of settlers in Green County and then in Adair, and they were heavily involved in the settling of the town of Columbia, the county seat of Adair.

1796: Kentucky Land Grants issued to Beards, starting with 1796. See The Beard Brothers.


  • 11 March: James Beard, 200 acre land grant, Green County, Kentucky.

  • Samuel Beard purchased land on the Green River from "General Clark", George Rogers Clark. In 1850, a part of that land would figure in a court case, and it was stated in court documents that this land was sold to Samuel by General Clark.

  • In 1796 and 1798, an Andrew Beard and a Joseph Beard had land grants in Green County, Kentucky, apparently in the part that became neighboring Barren County later. They are possibly the Andrew and Joseph who were also active in Eastern Tennessee in the same time and area as our Beards. No relationship is known at this time.


  • April: Back in old Augusta County, Virginia: Covenant to Thomas Barber and Samuel Irvine in Danville, Kentucky to take depositions of William McDowell and William Bufford. Notice to take depositions of above and Chesley Calloway and Nicholas Welch, inhabitants of Kentucky, to be taken at Barnets Town on Green River. Joseph Barnet and John Beard, Commissioners. Chalkley's Chronicles


  • 30 May: John Beard, 200 acre land grant, Green County, Kentucky near or along Smith Creek
  • 30 June: John Beard, 200 acre land grant, Green County, Kentucky near or along Spring Creek
  • date? Hugh Beard received a 200 acre land grant on the south side of the Green River, in the survey of George Rogers Clark.


  • Green County, Kentucky Tax List: James, James, John, John Sr, John Jr, and Samuel Beard are all listed. No Hugh is listed yet, see above entry in Tennessee where in June of 1800, John Sevier visits at Major Hugh Beard's home near Knoxville on his way home from a journey to Washington. Hugh joined them soon, however, as he is listed with them on the 1802 Adair County Tax List. Also on the 1800 Green County Tax List with our Beard families are James and John Clendennon, David Doke, James, James, and Thomas Millican, all families united with the Beards by marriage.


  • 14 January: From the Tennessee Gazette, to be sold: in Washington County, Tennessee for nonpayment of taxes, John Millican, 232 acres on Big Limestone.


  • Adair County, Kentucky was formed, mostly from Green County. See the 1802 Adair County Tax List that is included on the page The Beard Brothers. Three interesting changes are evident from the 1800 to the 1802 tax list. One is that some sons of all the families had attained legal age and were listed by name, one is that John Clendennon listed in 1800 was not listed in 1802, just his son James (John had returned to Eastern Tennessee); and the most important change is that Hugh Beard had joined the group and is listed with his son on land on Russell Creek.
  • 27 September:  John Beard Sr granted 300 acres on Russell Creek.
  • 28 September:  Hugh Beard appointed to construct Adair County Court House.
  • Town of Columbia, Kentucky: first trustees were Colonel William Casey, Hugh Beard, Andrew Ewing, Wm McNeely, Robert Hill. "To lay off the streets, alleys, etc, expense to sale of lots". John Field added two years later. Hugh Beard was appointed the surveyor.
  • Date? Sheriff paid John Beard Sr 3.50 for building and maintaining a stray pound. and 6.00 for services as keeper of the stray pound.
  • Date? Peter Buckingham is appointed captain of the patrol, and John Beard, son of Samuel, and John Beard, son of Hugh, "be made assistants". ***Adair County Records, find date and cite.
  • April:  Court records recite that Joseph Beard, infant son of Mary Beard, about four years, was apprenticed to David Ellis; Rhoda Beard, infant orphan of the same, age six years, apprenticed to Charles Hedge; Anne Beard, infant orphan of the same about three years, apprenticed to Peter Edwards.  Who are these children?
  • In Middle Tennessee at this time, there are records for grants to a John Baird, 2500 acres in Bedford County, for Revolutionary War service. There is a Baird family who have done DNA testing, and they claim this record is for their ancestor John Baird. We are definitely not a DNA match to this family. However, by 1820 Samuel and Hugh Beard are both landholders in Bedford County; their brother John Beard died in Adair County, Kentucky, in about 1818. We know that our John Beard was an officer in the Revolutionary War forces of Botetourt County, Virginia. In 1820 they were the only Baird/Beard family there. Something led these men to leave Adair County, leaving some of their sons there, and go to live in Bedford County.


  • 4 April: John Beard to be summoned to appear here immediately to show cause why he should not be fined for contempt offered this Court in striking James Leapor in the yard of the Courthouse. [all this is then marked out] John Beard be fined 5 dollars for a contempt offered this Court and that he pay the cost. Adair County Court Records 1802-1808. There were many Leapors/Leepers in early Augusta County, Virginia, There was also a record of a James Leapor killed by Indians in Greene County, Tennessee when our Beard family was there.
  • 10 October: John Beard purchased lots 77 and 85 from the Columbia Trustees on this date. Book A, page 152, Adair County. John Beard bought lot 76 from Columbia Trustees.
  • John Beard, registered his earmark [brand], a C off the right end of tail
  • 27 Dec:  Samuel Beard promised to pay the estate of William Henderson 420 pounds.  See 1805


  • 8 December: The will of William Henderson of Lincoln County, Kentucky, appears in Adair County, Kentucky records as well. He was married to Mary Beard, reportedly the daughter of Edward Beard and Mary Bell. The will was sitnessed by John Craig and by a Samuel Beard, who may have been her younger brother Samuel Beard.


  • Feb:  Hugh Beard arrested for trespassing.
  • Mar:  Nicholas Perkins arrested on complaint of Samuel Beard
  • June:  Abraham Parker arrested on charges brought by John Beard.
  • June:  Estate of William Henderson was sued by J. Beard for $420


  • 6 January: Elizabeth Beard married William Hurst in Adair County, Kentucky. Her father was Hugh Beard.
  • 3 February: Samuel Beard, granted 100 acres on Green River. Adair County Deed Book, page 203, need complete wording.
  • 1 December: On this date in Adair County, ". . . the county court, meeting at the home of John Beard, Sr, heard a report from the building commissioners that the new brick courthouse, now ready for occupancy, measured up to their expectations. Probably with a sense of the importance of the occasion, the court adjourned, traipsed over to the public square, and reconvened in the new quarters. The honor of presiding as the senior judge that day fell to Daniel Trabue, who . . . worked so diligently to establish the frontier village.? From Westward Into Kentucky: The Narrative of Daniel Trabue, the reminiscences of Daniel Trabue, one of the founders of the town. Trabue was the census taker in 1810 and signed the forms.

    Green River Resevoir, present day


  • Samuel Beard, Sr and wife Rebeccah sold property to John Beard. Book B, page 43, Adair County.
  • James Beard and Jenny "Clenderman" sold property to her father (or a brother?), John "Clenderman". Book B, page 2, Adair County. Full cite needed of this deed. "Clenderman" is really the surname Clendenning/Clendennon/Clendennin, a family who were very old neighbors of the Beards on the Cowpasture River in Virginia from the mid 1700s. This James Beard is the son of John Beard Sr. See cites at December 1810 and at August 1811.
  • 21 January: Andrew Beard, Robert Todd, James Butler, Peter Estes, are themselves indebted to the Governor in the sum of L100? They are to appear before the circuit court March next to give evidence against James Street who stands charged with a certain felony. Page 55?
  • 2 February: Hugh Beard, Sr: Emancipation of Slaves...Book B, page 290.
  • 23 March: Joseph Miller Sr and wife Lilly of Adair County to Hugh Beard, of Adair County, 200 acres on Russell Creek, part of a military survey patented to Henry Banks and William Roberts, Sulphur Fork of Russell Creek, Book B, page 91. The Beards had many dealings with this Miller family. According to a Miller family history, Joseph Miller Sr entered service in 1775 in Botetourt County, Virginia, so they may have been friends for many years before Kentucky.
  • 20 April: John A. Beard and wife Margaret to Thomas Pile/Pike, Book C, page 506


  • 14 Jan: Joseph Street stole a red sow valued at $4.00 from Andrew Beard.
  • 22 March: Joseph Miller and wife Lillly of Adair County and Robert Allen Sr of Scott County, Kentucky, 175 acres in Adair County, on Sulphur Fork of Russell Creek, part of a 1130 acre patent to Henry Banks and William Roberts, corner of original survey, to Beard's line, to Beard's tract? Book B, page 34. This is land next to Hugh Beard, Sr's land.
  • 4 April: Hugh Beard married Margaret Hildergard/Hildegard; a different cite for this marriage record, recorded on the same day, says that Hugh Beard married Margaret Beard. This is Hugh S. Beard, the son of Hugh Beard, Sr, who married his cousin Margaret Hildegard Beard, daughter of Samuel and Rebecca.
  • 19 May: John Beard Sr, the Constable of Adair County, sells property to Samuel Baker, Book B, page 110, Adair County.
  • John Beard and wife Margaret sold more property to Thomas Pile, on Columbia Public Square, Book B, page 85, Adair County
  • 14 September: Hugh Beard purchased property from Joseph Miller and wife Lilly, 92 1/2 acres on Sulphur Lick of Russell Creek corner to __ Paxton. Book B, page __ Adair County.
  • Oldbarn
  • 20 September: Mary Polly Beard, the daughter of Hugh Beard, Sr, married Absalom Coffee/Coffey, Adair County.  David Doak was the witness listed; he was married to Polly's sister Jane.
  • Absalom Coffee and wife Polly sold 92 1/2 acres of Sulphur Lick, Book E, page 590, Adair County. this is Mary "Polly" Beard, the daughter of Hugh Beard, Sr. See note of 1826. Date?


  • 17 January: James Beard married Polly Selby, rites performed by Herbert G. Waggener. This is the son of Samuel and Rebecca.
  • 6 Feb:  John Beard Sr is granted a license to keep a tavern in his home for one year in the town of Columbia.  Executed bond James Beard and John Beard, son of Samuel is security.
  • 3 July:  John Beard and Hugh Beard were on jury.  Slave of John Chapman's accused of murdering his/her owner, found guilty.  Hanged in August this year.
  • 4 July:  John Beard Sr appointed Jailor of Adair County because William Worley has been found gilty of neglect.  John Beard Sr was paid for guarding Negro Robert sixteen days, $12.00.  This may have been the slave accused of murdering Chapman, above.  John Beard Sr was paid for Sunday services as Jailor $8.92
  • Hugh Beard paid taxes on 200 acres on [Sulphur?] Lick property. He paid taxes for 290 acres in 1810 and 300 acres for four years, 1811 through 1814.
  • 4 Dec:  John Beard Sr renewed his bond as constable and Hugh Beard and Nathan Coffey as security.


  • Census, Adair County, Kentucky: several researchers have spent considerable time studying this census. It appears that many mistakes were made in the age boxes, for many different families. Some heads of households are even missing, although listed as the head. There seems to be a pattern of elder women listed in the homes, but a missing elder man. Although possible that some of our Beards had gone down into middle Tennessee by this time, all evidence we can find points to 1811-1814 for that. It is possible that all the men were gone together on a hunting trip or even on a scouting trip to Tennessee, inspecting land to buy or that had already been bought. There is only one census for Tennessee extant, Rutherford. That said, here is a summary of this census:

  • Samuel Beard, page 2: males: 3 und 10,1 10-16,2 16-26,1 26-45 [S. should be 55] fems: 2 10-16, 1 16-26, 1 over 45
  • Hugh Beard, page 2: males: 1 10-16; fems: 2 und 10, 1 16-26, 1 over 45
  • Hugh Beard, page 2: males: 1 16-26, 1 26-45; fems 2 26-45, 1 over 45
  • James Beard, page ? : males, 3 und 10, 1 16-26; females, 2 und 10, 1 26-45
  • John Beard, page 3: males, 1 und 10, 1 26-45; females, 2 und 10, 2 10-16, 1 26-45
  • John Beard, page 16: males, 1 over 45; females, 1 und 10, 1 16-26, 1 over 45

  • 8 March: John Beard Sr and wife Margaret sold property to William Caldwell, Adair Book B, page 231 [or 331?]
  • 5 April: Betsey Beard married Robert Casky, by John White, Adair County. Elizabeth "Betsey" Beard, daughter of Samuel and Rebecca.
  • 19 June John Beard Sr purchased property from Benjamin Browning/Bowning/Bowman? Adair Book B, page 370
  • 4 October: John Beard Sr and wife Mary? sold property to James Mathew McDowell, Adair Book B, page 422.
  • 20 June 1810, document filed re John Clendenning/Clendennin who died in Sevier County, Tennessee and left 212 acres south of the French Broad River, on Flat Creek, to his heirs, listed as Mary [his wife was Mary] James, John, Polly, and Nancy Clendenin, Ester McGee [married John McGee], Jenny Beard [married James Beard, the son of old John Beard, who willed him a slave in 1818, when James lived in Maury County, see cite], Betsy Clabaugh [married Charles Clabaugh]. East Tennessee Patent Book 2, page 695.This document can be viewed here.   Also see the cite this year in December, and one at 1811, and one at 1819.
  • 6 August: On the motion of John Beard Sr on behalf of Hugh Beard Jr the said Hugh Beard's ear mark is a crop and under bit off the right ear and a swallow fork and under bit off the left.
  • 1 Oct:  John Beard Jr renewed his bond as constable.
  • No date?  John Beard Sr, Jailor, was paid for guarding Negro and refiring irons $4.10.
  • 18 December: In Sevier County, Tennessee: Power of Attorney by Mary Clendenning, widow of John Clendening, all of Sevier County, Tennessee, to John McGee of Warren County, Tennessee, to convey to William Douglas 4/7th parts of 340 acres bounded by Sitlington and Mayses, and to obtain payment. Executed Sevier County, filed in Bath County, Virginia as well. See next entry, August of 1811.


  • 11 August: Power of Attorney by James Beard of Maury County, Tennessee and his wife Jenny to John McGee of Warren County, Tennessee to convey to William Douglas of Bath County, Virginia, any rights of theirs in 340 acres patented to John Clendenning [Jenny Beard's father], being 1/7th, and to demand payment due for this land on the Cowpasture River. Executed in Tennessee, filed there, in Adair County, Kentucky, and in Bath County, Virginia. What this cite and the previous cite tell us: John and Mary Clendenning, who lived in Sevier County, Tennessee, still owned property on the Cowpasture River in Bath County, Virginia. It was next to the Mays/Mayse family, the Beards had also lived on the Cowpasture next to the Mayses and the Clendennings. After his death, Mary and her children had to sign Powers of Attorney for the sale to take place in Virginia. Jenny Clendenning married James Beard, the son of John Beard, and they lived in Maury County, Tennessee--John Beard gave them a slave and the record recites "of Maury County, Tennessee". John McGee was married to her sister Esther, and they lived in Warren County, Tennessee. John McGee was evidently going to Virginia to consummate the sale for the family.
  • 3 October: John Beard Jr to Thomas Sperry for $50, Lot 2 and Lot 11 in town of Columbia. Margaret Beard signed. Recorded November 7. Adair Book C, page 93. So is Margaret his wife or his mother? See below at 7 November.
  • 5 November:  For resons appearing to the Court it is asked that John Beard Sr be removed from office as Jailor.  Same date, John Beard Sr, Jailor, paid and constable was paid $36.00
  • 7 November: John Beard, Jr and wife Margaret sold property to John Fields, two lots in town of Columbia, Adair Book C, page 104. Note that there are cites for both John Beard Jr and Sr with a wife Margaret, and also a Mary with John Beard, Sr. All these old deeds must be rechecked for Jr/Sr status and for wive's names.

Early 1810s: Several of the Beard families of Adair County, Kentucky began moving down into Maury County, Tennessee, which was formed from Williamson County in 1807. Neighboring Bedford County was formed in the same year. It was not a total migration, however, as many of each family stayed in Kentucky and many are still there today. By this time, it was a fairly easy trip for them to visit back and forth. Why would so many give up their good lands in Kentucky to sons or sell it off and go to Tennessee? Usually the reason was land. Much of the middle Tennessee land was given in military grants around this time, but it is very difficult to know as almost all these counties had courthouses that burned or were burned.

  • The family of David Beard, son of Samuel and Rebecca, have an oral family history of him going back to Tennessee with his father in 1811-1812.
  • The family of William Hurst and Elizabeth Beard moved to Bedford County in 1812. Elizabeth was the daughter of Hugh Beard, Sr. Their daughter Lucy's obituary in the Nashville Christian Advocate in 1890 told of their coming to Tennessee this year.


  • Hugh Beard and wife Esther sold 200 acres on Sulphur Fork of Russell Creek to John Miller, Adair Deed Book D, page 289-290.
  • 9 April: John Beard Sr bought land from John Thomas Staton/Stayton, Lot 34 for $34. Adair Book C, page 148.
  • same date, John Beard Sr sold land to Benjamin Selby for $33.50, Lot 43, Columbia, Adair Book C, page 149.
  • 31 August: Samuel Beard of Maury County, Tennessee sold property to John Rogers, on Butler's Creek, Adair Book C, page 195. Note: We know that John Beard had a son, James Beard, living in Maury County. See 12 September, 1818. This may be another son of John.
  • John Beard, Sr to Lewis Lampton, Lot 43 in Columbia, cite?
  • The War of 1812
  • From Roster of the Volunteer Officers and Soldiers from Kentucky in the War of 1812, page 258: Hugh Beard, private, enlised 28 September 1812 and discharged 29 October 1812, in Captain John Butler's company of the Kentucky Mounted Militia commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Young Ewing under General Samuel Hopkins in 1812.
  • From same, Samuel Beard, private, enlisted same day, discharged same date, served in same company as the above Hugh Beard.
  • Samuel and Rebecca Beard had sons named Hugh and Samuel, both of right age to serve in 1812. See note of July 1816 regarding this Hugh giving a Power of Attorney to a relative in Adair County to collect his dues for this service--does this mean that he lived in middle Tennessee in 1816? Note that David Doke/Doak appears on the roll of this unit as well. He married Jane Beard, daughter of Hugh and Esther Beard. Hugh S. Beard, the son of Hugh, seems to be the one who served in the next note:


  • From same, page 139: Hugh Beard, private, enlisted 29 August 1813, discharged 5 September 1813, in Captain Thomas Childer's company of Kentucky Mounted Volunteer Militia commanded by Colonel William Mountjoy, which company served in upper Canada. Are these records for two different Hugh Beards, or the same one serving two hitches?
  • Samuel Beard purchased property from Phillip Knifley, 100 acres on Butler's Creek. Cite?
  • 5 October: In Maury County, Tennessee records of Wills and Settlements, Book A, page 106: The sale of the estate of James Milican, deceased. [This is James Millican/Milligan who married Jane Beard, the daughter of Samuel and Rebecca, in Greene County, Tennessee in 1792.] Buyers are listed, they include Elizabeth Milican, James Milican [these are the names of the deceased's parents], Jane Reynolds [this is Jane Millican/Milligan, daughter of James and Elizabeth and sister of deceased, who married William Reynolds in Greene County, Tennessee in 1790], Samuel Beard [probably the elder Samuel, the father in law of deceased], and David and Isaac Butler. As to Butlers, see note at ___


  • 4 January: James Beard purchased property from William McNeely and wife Polly, 250 acres on Little Barren River, Book C, page 333.
  • 19 February: Samuel Beard purchased property from Zadock Wheeler, Book C, page 349. Samuel's son Samuel would marry Betsey, Zadock Wheeler's daughter, in the next year.
  • 15 September: Andrew Beard and wife Mary of Barren County, Kentucky, sold property to William and Hyram Royse, Adair Book D, page 24.
  • 28 September: Hugh Beard, Sr purchased land from Thomas Milligan in Bedford County, Tennessee. Adair Book C, page 438.
  • same date, Thomas Milligan of Bedford County, Tennessee appointed Hugh Beard attorney to convey to John Beard 200 acres on Butler Creek, which is in Bedford County, Tennessee. Adair Book C, page 438, filed in Adair.
  • John Beard Jr sold two lots on the Columbia public square to Thomas Sperry. Date? Cite?
  • John Beard sold land to Hugh Beard, Adair Book C, page 451.
  • 3 November: In Green County, Kentucky, next to Adair, Josiah Beard, son of Samuel and Rebecca, married Diodema/Demia Mann, the daughter of Moses Mann, another old Augusta County family. The young couple lived on land her father gave them near Mannsville, which he founded, until about 1836.
  • 23 December: Hugh Beard Sr and wife Esther sold property to Absolom Coffey, 92 acres, at Sulphur Fork and Russell Creek, Adair Book C, page 466. Note: Absolom Coffey is Hugh Beard's son in law, married Hugh's daughter Polly in 1808. See November 1826.


  • Hugh Beard Sr sold property to Wharton Lampton, Adair Deed Book D, page 87
  • 25 April: Samuel Beard, son of Samuel and Rebecca, married Betsey Wheeler, the daughter of Zadock Wheeler.

  • Greenriversp

    Green River State Park, Adair County, Kentucky

    Polly Beard married Lingan Selby. She is the daughter of Samuel and Rebecca.

  • 12 August: Hugh Beard Sr purchased property from John Beard Sr, Adair Book C, page 528

  • 6 Nov: Hugh Beard purchased property from William Caldwell, Adair Book D, page 47.

  • 13 November: in Bedford County, Tennessee, a John Beard, Ensign, of 47th Regiment.


  • 6 February: Samuel Beard bought property from William Caldwell, Adair Book D, page 92
  • 1 July John Beard Sr purchased property from Hugh Beard, Adair Book D, page 133.
  • 1 July: Hugh Beard, in the company of John Butler, Captain of Adair Militia, served under General Samuel Hopkins in 1812. Book D. Now Hugh Beard gave Power of Attorney to John Beard, Jr to collect money from the United States for service in volunteer militia commanded by John Butler in expedition against the Indians under General Samuel Hopkins. Book D, page 133. Does this Power of Attorney mean that this is the Hugh Beard who left Adair County and went down into middle Tennessee with his father Samuel? The Butler family lived near the Beards in Adair County; some of them appear in Bedford County, Tennessee with them.


  • John Beard, among purchasers at the Huggart estate sale, Adair County.
  • John and Jenny Beard purchased property from Benard Moore, 100 acres on Green River. We know of a James and Jenny, is this a separate couple, or has the document been erroneously abstracted? Need to examine the original. Adair Book E, page 86.


  • Hugh Beard purchased land in Bedford County, Tennessee on Big Flat Creek. Cite? Filed in Adair County, Kentucky.
  • John Beard Sr sold property to Benjamin McDowell, Adair Book D, 445
  • 12 September: John Beard Sr of Adair County, Kentucky to Son, James Beard of Murry [Maury] County, Tennessee: a slave. Adair Deed Book E, page 55. [Records in 1812 in Maury County show a James Beard and a Samuel Beard.] This is the last record found for John Beard, Sr and it is believed that he died in 1818-1819.
  • 28 December: Nancy Butler and James, her son, sold five acres to Hugh Baird on Big Flat Creek in Bedford County, Tennessee. Witnesses were William Ray and John Boswell. This was Nancy, widow of Isaac Butler. She was a Millican/Milligan, married Isaac Butler in 1797 in Green or Adair County, Kentucky. See cites of 1831.


  • James and Jenny Beard sold property to Benard Moore, 100 acres on Green River, Book E, page 86.
  • 26 May A John Beard is listed in the Bedford County, Tennessee militia as an ensign of the 47th Regiment, Tennessee Militia, date 26 May 1819.
  • 12 August: In Warren County, Tennessee, pertaining to the estate of John Clendenning/Clendennon/Clendennan, his son in law Charles Clabaugh "with his inlaws", which inlaws are listed in the document, released claims on a "Negro woman named Suck who was being sold to Mathew Cout/Court? in Jefferson County, Tennessee. Besides the inlaws, James and John Clendenning, both sons of John, deceased, were listed. The inlaws listed were: John McGee (married to Esther/Ester Clendenning); James Beard of Maury County, Tennessee (married to Jenny/Jane Clendenning), and Hugh Beard of Bedford County, Tennessee! There were two Hugh Beards in Bedford County at this time, the elder one, who was Samuel's elder brother, and the younger one, who was Samuel's grown son and lived in Samuel's household at the 1820 census. In 1810 (see cite at 1810 of this outline), the heirs of John Clendenning/Clendennon/Clendennan were listed as Mary, James, John, Polly (Mary) and Nancy Clendenning, and his married daughters Betsey Clabaugh, Ester McGee, and Jenny Beard. Therefore, it would appear that daughter Esther is still married to John McGee in 1819 and cannot be the Esther who was married to Hugh Beard Sr in some of the earlier documents in this outline. It would therefore appear that the younger Hugh Beard has married either Mary Polly Clendenning or her sister Nancy Clendenning, both single in 1810. In the 1850 census, Hugh's widow IS named Mary; however, she is probably not Mary Clendenning as the 1850 Mary was born 1797 in Georgia. From all signs, this Mary appears to be Hugh's second wife. His first wife could have been Nancy or Mary Clendenning. Jefferson County, Tennessee Deed Book P, page 147.


  • Oct:  Jehu White arrested on a complaint by John Beard
  • Census, Adair County, Kentucky: Samuel and Hugh Beard are listed in Bedford County, Tennessee and their elder brother John Beard has apparently recently died before this census.
  • Hugh S. Beard: males: 2 und 10, 1 26-45; fems 2 und 10, 1 10-16, 1 26-45 [Son of Hugh, married to Margaret, the daughter of Samuel]
  • John Beard: males: 1 und 10, 3 10-16, 1 16-25, 1 26-45; fems 2 und 10, 1 10-16, 1 26-45 [Believed to be John, the son of John, perhaps with some of his siblings in his home as well as children]
  • John Beard: males: 2 und 10, 1 26-45; fems 1 und 10, 1 16-26 [Believed to be John, son of Hugh]
  • James Beard: males: 1 und 10, 1 26-45; fems 3 und 10, 1 10-16, 1 16-26, 1 26-45 [Son of Samuel who would move down to Henderson County, Tennessee before 1830, next to his parents]
  • Josiah Beard is listed, over in Green County, Kentucky: males, 2 und 10, 1 16-25, 1 26-44; fems 1 und 10, 1 26-44

And down in Bedford County, Tennessee:

  • Hugh Baird: males, 1 over 45; fems 1 und 10, 1over 45, and three slaves
  • Samuel Baird: males, 3 und 10, 2 10-15, 2 16-25, 1 over 45; fems 2 und 10, 1 10-15, 1 26-44, 1 over 45, 7 slaves. We believe that one or more of his sons are married and living in his home and one of them must be Hugh, who is married. Listed on same page as Samuel is Pumphrey Bynum, brother of Enoch Bynum, whose daughter would marry the son of this Hugh and the grandson of Samuel in about 1849 in Panola County, Mississippi.
  • Benjamin Baird: males, 2 und 10, 2 10-15, 1 16-25, 1 26-44; females, 2 und 10, 1 26-44, 2 over 45; 4 slaves. We do not know any relationship of this Baird to our family.

In neighboring Maury County:

  • James Beard: males, 2 und 10, 2 10-16, 1 over 45; fems 2 10-15, 1 over 45, 1 slave [Son of John Beard Sr of Adair County, Kentucky, the slave was given to him by his father in 1818, see note at 1818]. This is the James Beard who married Jane/Jenny Clendenning.
  • Samuel Beard: males, 2 16-25, 1 26-44, 1 over 45; fems, 1 26-44, 1 over 45 [very possibly a son of John Sr and brother to James just above, no proof as yet]
  • There are other Beards listed in Maury County, but we have no knowledge as yet of their relationship, if any. By this time there were many generations of many Beard/Baird families in Tennessee.


  • Elijah Beard, the son of Samuel and Rebecca, signed a petition to build a dam across the Duck River in Bedford County, Tennessee. Bedford County Historical Quarterly, Vol 7 No 4, Winter 1981, pgs 117-119.


  • 24 June 1824: The heirs of John Clendennon make a land claim in Sevier County, Tennessee. It is on the "waters of Flat Creek". They are listed as Mary (the widow), James, John, Polly, Nancy Clendennon and Esther McGhee, Jenny Beard, and Betsey Clabaugh, the heirs of John Clendennon. Sevier County, Roll #2.
  • Reported to be a document "sold 137 acres in Bedford County", filed in Adair County? Possibly a record of Hugh Beard Sr, as he moved on to northern Alabama about this time? Another note, "twice witnessed sale of land in Bedford County, Tennessee by Elizabeth Wilson" seems to refer to Hugh. Must find full cite and documents.
  • In Adair County, Kentucky, Josiah Beard, son of Samuel, went together with Sampson Caskey to buy a parcel of land at foreclosure, It was 300 acres on north fork of Casey Creek in Adair County, from the estate of John Mathews. Bought 16 July 1824, rec on 4 October 1824. We believe that this Sampson Caskey was brother of Robert Caskey who married Elizabeth Beard in 1810, sister of Josiah. Robert and Elizabeth Beard Caskey named a son Sampson...


  • 9 March: Adair County, Kentucky, Sevier Beard married Catherine Hill, daughter of Zadock Hill/Hills of Adair County. Sevier was born in 1802 and appears to be a son of John Beard, Sr.
  • 8 June: Hugh Beard and wife Esther of Bedford County, Tennessee sold a lot in Columbia, Adair County, Kentucky, to Edmund Waggener of Adair County. Cite?
  • 28 August: Adair County, Kentucky: Rebecca Beard married Nicholas Hardin, by: Cory Hardwick. She is a daughter of Samuel and Rebecca. This is his third marriage, and may not be her first one.


  • James Beard gave a Power of Attorney to Robert Page, Adair County, Kentucky. This is most likely the James, son of Samuel, who is preparing to move or has just moved down to middle Tennessee. Need full cite. Book F, 467
  • 7 November: Hugh Beard, of Limestone County, Alabama, gives Power of Attorney to Absalom Coffee of the same to secure land from Joseph Miller, whose bond said Hugh holds, and deed it to Alex Miller. Order Book F, page 643. Hugh Beard, Sr has moved down to Limestone County, which is on the Tennessee/Alabama border; his daughter Mary Polly Beard Coffee and husband Absalom moved there from Bedford County, Tennessee, as well, probably at the same time [1820-1826] Polly and Absalom married in 1808 in Adair County, Kentucky. There are several Beards in this area of Alabama at this time, relationships not known. See 1831 cite regarding Hugh Beard in Alabama, as well.


  • Joseph Miller sold to Hugh Beard, "late of the state of Tennessee", for $420 200 acres on Russell Creek, Slate Creek, and Sulphur Fork, patented on the 1st day of November 1798 to Hugh Beard, Senior. Which Hugh Beard is this? Need full cite.


  • 9 September: George Beard married Permelia Patterson. Is this Beard or Bird? 1830 census, a George "Bird" is living close by a Mary Patterson in Adair County. He is 20-30.


  • 11 April: Oliver Beard married Bertha Hill by: Henry Gregg, Adair County. Are Sevier Beard and Oliver Beard brothers who married sisters? Bertha and Catherine Hill were daughters of Zadock Hill of Adair County.


  • 17 April: Betsey Beard married George Breeding By: Joseph Turner
  • In about 1830, David J. Beard son of Samuel and Rebecca, married Martha Fuller.
  • 1830 census, Adair County, Kentucky:
  • Hugh S. Beard [son of Hugh Beard] males, 1 10-15, 1 15-20, 1 40-50; females, 1 10-15, 1 15-20, 1 20-30, 1 40-50
  • Samuel Beard [son of Samuel Beard] males, 1 5-10, 1 10-15, 1 20-30, 1 40-50; females, 1 10-15, 1 30-40
  • John Beard: males, 1 15-20, 2 20-30, 1 50-60; females, 1 30-40, 1 50-60
  • John Beard: males, 1 und 10, 2 5-10, 1 40-50; females, 1 10-15, 1 20-30
  • Sevier Beard: males, 1 under 10, 1 20-30; females 1 20-30
  • 1830 census in Henderson County, Tennessee:
  • Samuel Beard aged 70-80 with female the same, is located on same page of census as Mary Fausatt (Faucett), Nancy Ward, and Jane Houston, all widows and related to men who married granddaughters of Samuel and Rebecca.  


  • November: "Hugh Beard, deceased, of Jackson County, Alabama, father of Jane Doak, whose husband David Doak . . . " Adair County records, need copy of entire document. See cite at November, 1826 Jackson County, Alabama and Limestone County, Alabama were neighboring counties in far northern Alabama.
  • 5 November 1831: "David Doak to Samuel Doak, both of Bedford Co, Tennessee, both formerly of Adair Co, Kentucky. David Doak is indebted to Samuel Doak for $503.68 which is due, convey unto Samuel Doak all his legacy coming to him in right of his wife Jane Doak and the daughter of Hugh Beard, deceased, of Jackson Co, Alabama." Witnessed by James Brittain and Jno M. Cannon. Page 384, Book BB of Bedford Co, Tennessee Deeds. Was this document filed in both Adair and in Bedford Counties?


  • 29 September: Robert Marshall, the sheriff of Henderson County, Tennessee "would sell a lot belonging to the heirs of John McClure and a lot belonging to Samuel Wilson whereon Andrew Greer lived. Sold 10 November same year for debt..."


  • 10 May: Samuel Beard married Easter Brooks, attest by Hugh S. Beard. Probably not a son of Hugh S. Beard, as all male children on censuses (2) are accounted for. Not the son of Samuel, as that Samuel married Betsey Wheeler. By elimination, must be a son or likely, a grandson, of John, who died about 1818.
  • 24 May: Samuel Beard of Henderson County, Tennessee sold a tract of land on Sulphur Lick Creek, on the waters of the Green River, "it being a part of a survey of land that the said Samuel Beard bought of General Clark", containing 196 and 3/4 acres. He sold this tract to Hugh S. Beard of Adair County, Kentucky on this date, for a hundred dollars. At this time, Samuel would have been about 79 years old and resided in Henderson County, Tennessee. Deed was made and presented to Hugh S. Beard. Hugh S. Beard was his nephew, who was married to a cousin, Samuel Beard's daughter Margaret. One year later, on 10 May 1834, Hugh S. Beard signed the title to the land over to his son, John A. Beard. In later years, John A. Beard needed a clear title to the land in order to sell or mortgage it, and it got fairly complicated for him, as his father and his great uncle were both dead by then (1850) and all the heirs of Samuel and Rebecca had to be named, as well as all the heirs of Hugh S. and Margaret Beard. See cite at 1850.


  • 11 May: Partheny Beard married D. C. Miller By: Alex Sinclair. This is Hugh S. Beard's daughter Parthenia who married Dewitt Clinton Miller, Adair County.
  • 5 August: Levica Beard married William B. Stults By: Steven Rogers. This is Hugh S. Beard's daughter Levica who married William Burke Stults in Adair County, Kentucky.
  • 23 December: Margaret Beard married George Stults By: Steven Rogers. This is the cousin of the previous brides, the daughter of Hugh S. Beard's brother John Thomas Beard. She married George Wesley Stults in Adair County, Kentucky.
  • In 1834-1835, Samuel Beard died in Jackson, Madison County, Tennessee, while on a visit to his son, according to an old family account.  We know that he had a son named James who lived close to him.  Madison County is a border county to Henderson County, where Samuel lived.  


  • Census, Adair County, Kentucky: ADD COUNTS
  • Hugh S. Beard
  • Samuel Beard
  • John Beard
  • Charles Beard
  • Washington Beard
  • Harrison Beard
  • William Beard
  • Reason H. Beard
  • David Beard
  • Milton Beard
  • Jefferson Beard


  • 26 August: John J. Beard, MD married Mary N. McWorther, Adair County, Kentucky. He was the son of Josiah Beard and Diodema Mann, grandson of Samuel and Rebecca Beard.


  • As a point of interest, a passage from The Papers of Henry Clay, page 479, "I cannot inform you how the Kentucky delegation will be divided. John A. McClung and Littleton Beard are against you, the former quite active and noisy, as I have been informed." We have many Littleton Beards in our family, this one seems to possibly be the one in Wayne County, Kentucky, and no relationship is known as of now.


  • 4 February: Elijah Beard married Nancy J. Bridgewater in Adair County, Kentucky. He was the son of Josiah Beard, and the grandson of Samuel and Rebecca.
  • February: Panola County, Mississippi road gang appointed: ". . .?? appointed overseer of the Panola-Tallahatchie County Line Road from Long Creek at Mr. Enoch Bynum's to Tallahatchie County line near Buckley's for the next 12 months. Hands include Benjamin Easley, James Beard, William Beard, John W. Milligan, Alfred Carter, E. Beard and his brother Jesse Ward, Benjamin Bynum, brothers Fowler, W. Underwood, James and John Fosset, Thomas Hubbard, John Carter." The overseer could well be John Ward, whose brother was Jesse Ward.
  • October: Panola County, Mississippi: William Thrasher, Solomon Small and John S. Newsom appointed commissioners to let contract for building a bridge over Stephens Creek.


  • John A. Beard files his lawsuit in Adair County, Kentucky, to clear title of some land that Samuel Beard had sold to Hugh S. Beard in 1834. See note at 1834.
  • Census. All Beard households in Adair County, Kentucky:
  • Josiah Beard 57 and Diodema 58 Son of Samuel
  • Elijah Beard 21 and Nancy J. 20 Son of Josiah, grandson of Samuel
  • Margaret Beard 63 widow of Hugh S. and daughter of Samuel
  • John A. Beard 33 and Olivia 30 Son of Hugh S. and Margaret, grandson of both Hugh and Samuel
  • Milton Beard 37 and Lucy 31 Son of Hugh S and Margaret, grandson of both Hugh and Samuel
  • John J Beard 26 and Mary 21 Son of Josiah, grandson of Samuel
  • John [Thomas] Beard 56 and Jemima 53 Son of Hugh Beard, brother of Hugh S.
  • Charles Beard 37 and Elizabeth 35 Son of John Thomas, grandson of Hugh
  • Jefferson Beard 44 and Falitha 40 Probable son of John, the son of [old] John
  • Elizabeth Beard 41 Widow of Washington Beard, probable son of John, the son of [old] John
  • Moses Beard 32 and Susan 19 Son of Josiah, grandson of Samuel
  • Panola County, Mississippi: William R. Mitchell appointed overseer of the Panola Tallahatchie County Line Road from the corner of Judge Burbridge's field to Long Creek at Mr. Enoch Bynum's for the next 12 months. Hands include John and Daniel Thrasher.
  • Panola County, Mississippi: John Ward appointed overseer of the (same road) from Long Creek at Mr. Enoch Bynum's to Tallahatchie County line near Buckley's for the next 12 months. Hands include Benjamin Easley, James Beard, William Beard, John W. Milligan, Alf Carter, J. Gregor, Benjamin Bynum.